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Bibliografická citace

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BK
2nd ed.
Sunderland : Sinauer Associates, 2002
XIX,936 s. : il.

objednat
ISBN 0-87893-097-3 (váz.)
Obsahuje ilustrace, fotografie, bibliografické citace, předmluvu, úvod, dodatky, rejstřík
Bezobratlí - zoologie - učebnice vysokošk.
000042025
Contents // Preface xvii Acknowledgments x/x // I Introduction 1 // Where Did Invertebrates Come From? 4 // The Dawn of Life 4 // The Ediacaran Epoch and the Origin of Animals 5 The Paleozoic Era (570-250 mya) 6 The Mesozoic Era (250-65 mya) 7 The Cenozoic Era (65 mya-present) 7 // Where Do Invertebrates Live? 9 // Marine Habitats 9 // Estuaries and Coastal Marshlands 13 // Freshwater Habitats 13 Terrestrial Habitats 14 // A Special Type of Environment: Symbiosis 14 // Some Comments On Evolution 15 // Microevolution 15 Macroevolution 16 // A Final Introductory Message to the Reader 19 // / Classification, Systematics, and Phytogeny 23 // Biological Classification 24 Important Concepts and Terms 28 // Nomenclature 24 Constructing Phytogenies and Classifications // Systematics 27 31 // I Animal Architecture and the Bauplan Concept 41 // Body Symmetry 43 // Cellularity, Body Size, Germ Layers, and Body Cavities 46 Locomotion and Support 49 // Ameboid Locomotion 50 Cilia and Flagella 50 Muscles and Skeletons 52 // Feeding Mechanisms 56 // Intracellular and Extracellular Digestion 56 // Feeding Strategies 57 // Excretion and Osmoregulation 66 // Nitrogenous Wastes and Water Conservation 66 // Osmoregulation and Habitat 67 // Excretory and Osmoregulatory Structures 68 // Circulation and Gas Exchange 71 // Internal Transport 71 // Circulatory Systems 71 // Hearts and Other Pumping Mechanisms 73 // Vili CONTENTS // Gas Exchange and Transport 73 // Nervous Systems and Sense Organs 77
Invertebrate Sense Organs 77 Sense Organs 78 Independent Effectors 82 Bioluminescence 82 Nervous Systems and Body Plans 82 Hormones and Pheromones 84 Reproduction 84 Asexual Reproduction 85 Sexual Reproduction 86 Parthenogenesis 88 //  Animal Development, Life Histories, and Origins 93 // Eggs and Embryos 93 // Eggs 94 Cleavage 94 // The Problem of Cell Fates 98 Blastula Types 98 // Gastrulation and Germ Layer Formation 99 Mesoderm and Body Cavities 100 Life Cycles: Sequences and Strategies 102 // Classification of Life Cycles 102 Indirect Development 103 Settling and Metamorphosis 104 Direct Development 105 // The Protists 121 // Taxonomic History and Classification 123 Classification of the Protista 123 The Protist Bauplan 124 // Body Structure, Excretion, and Gas Exchange 124 Support and Locomotion 125 Nutrition 125 Activity and Sensitivity 125 Reproduction 127 Phylum Euglenida 129 Support and Locomotion 130 Nutrition 131 Reproduction 131 // Phylum Kinetoplastida (The Trypanosomes and Their Relatives) 131 // Support and Locomotion 133 Nutrition 134 // Mixed Development 105 // Adaptations to Land and Fresh Water 106 // Parasite Life Cycles 106 // The Relationships between Ontogeny and Phylogeny 106 // The Concept of Recapitulation 107 Heterochrony and Paedomorphosis 108 Origins of Major Croups of Metazoa 108 // Origin of the Metazoa 108 // Origin of the Bilateral Condition 112 // Origin of the Coelomic Condition 112 // Reproduction and Life Cycles 135 // Phylum Ciliophora (The
Ciliates) 135 // Support and Locomotion 135 Nutrition 139 Reproduction 142 // Phylum Apicomplexa (The Cregarines, Coccidians, Haemosporidians, and Piro plas ms) 145 // Support and Locomotion 146 Nutrition 146 // Reproduction and Life Cycles 147 // Phylum Dinoflagellata 148 // Support and Locomotion 151 Nutrition 151 Reproduction 152 // CONTENTS IX // Phylum Stramenopila 153 // Support and Locomotion 154 Nutrition 154 Reproduction 155 // Phylum Rhizopoda (Amebas) 155 // Support and Locomotion 157 Nutrition 159 Reproduction 160 Phylum Actinopoda 161 // Support and Locomotion 162 Nutrition 163 Reproduction 164 // Phylum Granuloreticulosa (Foraminifera and Their Kin) 165 // Support and Locomotion 166 Nutrition 166 // Reproduction and Some Life Cycles 167 // Phylum Diplomonadida 167 // Support and Locomotion 168 Nutrition 169 Reproduction 169 // Phylum Parabasilida (The Trichomonads and Hypermastigotes) 169 // Support and Locomotion 170 Nutrition 171 Reproduction 171 // Phylum Cryptomonada 172 Phylum Microspora 172 Phylum Ascetospora 173 Phylum Choanoflagellata 173 Phylum Chlorophyta 173 Phylum Opalinida 173 Gem/s Stephanopogon 174 Protist Phylogeny 174 // Phylum Rorifera: The Sponges 179 // Taxonomic History and Classification 180 The Poriferan Bauplan 182 // Body Structure and the Aquiferous System 183 // Cell Types 188 // Cell Aggregation 191 // Support 191 // Nutrition, Excretion, and Gas Exchange 192 Activity and Sensitivity 194 Reproduction and Development 196 // Some Additional
Aspects of Sponge Biology 201 // Distribution and Ecology 201 Biochemical Agents 201 // Growth Rates 202 Symbioses 202 // Poriferan Phylogeny 203 // The Origin of Sponges 203 Evolution within the Porifera 204 // / Four Phyla of Uncertain Affinity 209 // Taxonomic History 209 Mesozoan Bauplans 210 // Phylum Placozoa 210 Phylum Monoblastozoa 210 // Phylum Rhombozoa 211 Phylum Orthonectida 215 // Mesozoan Phylogeny 216 // X CONTENTS // $ Phylum Cnidaria 219 // Taxonomic History and Classification 222 The Cnidarian Bauplan 225 // The Body Wall 226 Support 236 Movement 239 Cnidae 242 // Feeding and Digestion 244 Defense, Interactions, and Symbiosis 246 Circulation, Gas Exchange, Excretion, and Osmoregulation 250 Nervous System and Sense Organs 250 Reproduction and Development 253 Cnidarian Phylogeny 261 // 9 Phylum Ctenophora: The Comb jellies 269 // Taxonomic History and Classification 271 The Ctenophoran Bauplan 274 // Support and Locomotion 274 Feeding and Digestion 276 // Circulation, Excretion, Gas Exchange, and Osmoregulation 279 Nervous System and Sense Organs 279 Reproduction and Development 280 // Ctenophoran Phylogeny 281 // J Q Phylum Platyhelminthes 285 // Taxonomic History and Classification 286 The Platyhelminth Bauplan 289 // Body Wall 291 // Support, Locomotion, and Attachment 294 Feeding and Digestion 295 // Circulation and Gas Exchange 299 Excretion and Osmoregulation 299 Nervous System and Sense Organs 300 Reproduction and Development 303 // Platyhelminth Phylogeny
313 // I J Phylum Nemertea: The Ribbon Worms 319 // Taxonomic History and Classification 321 // Classification 321 // The Nemertean Bauplan 322 // Body Wall 322 // Support and Locomotion 322 Feeding and Digestion 323 // Circulation and Gas Exchange 327 Excretion and Osmoregulation 328 Nervous System and Sense Organs 329 Reproduction and Development 331 // Nemertean Phylogeny 333 // CONTENTS XI // I / Blastocoelomates and Other Phyla 337 // Taxonomic History 338 // The Blastocoelomate Condition 338 // Phylum Rotifera: // The Rotifers 338 // General External Anatomy and Details of the Corona 340 // Body Wall, Body Cavity, Support, and Locomotion 341 // Feeding and Digestion 341 Circulation, Gas Exchange, Excretion, and Osmoregulation 343 Nervous System and Sense Organs 343 Reproduction and Development 343 Phylum Gastrotricha: // The Gastrotrichs 345 Body Wall, Support, and Locomotion 346 Feeding and Digestion 347 Circulation, Gas Exchange, Excretion, and Osmoregulation 347 Nervous System and Sense Organs 347 Reproduction and Development 347 Phylum Kinorhyncha: // The Kinorhynchs 348 // Body Wall 349 // Support and Locomotion 350 Feeding and Digestion 350 Circulation, Gas Exchange, Excretion, and Osmoregulation 350 Nervous System and Sense Organs 350 Reproduction and Development 350 Phylum Nemata: // The Nematodes 351 // Body Wall, Support, and Locomotion 352 Feeding and Digestion 353 Circulation, Gas Exchange, Excretion, and Osmoregulation 355 Nervous System and Sense Organs 357
Reproduction, Development, and Life Cycles 357 Life Cycles of Some Parasitic Nematodes 359 Phylum Nematomorpha: // Hair Worms and Their Kin 362 Body Wall, Support, and Locomotion 363 Feeding and Digestion 363 Circulation, Gas Exchange, Excretion, and Osmoregulation 363 Nervous System and Sense Organs 365 Reproduction and Development 365 // Phylum Priapula: // The Priapulans 365 // Body Wall, Support, and Locomotion 367 Feeding and Digestion 367 Circulation, Gas Exchange, Excretion, and Osmoregulation 368 Nervous System and Sense Organs 368 Reproduction and Development 368 Phylum Acanthocephala: // The Acanthocephalans 368 Body Wall, Support, Attachment, and Nutrition 369 // Circulation, Gas Exchange, and Excretion 370 Nervous System 370 Reproduction and Development 370 // Phylum En top meta: // The Entoprocts 371 // Body Wall, Support, and Movement 373 Feeding and Digestion 373 Circulation, Gas Exchange, and Excretion 374 Nervous System 374 Reproduction and Development 374 Phylum Cnathostomulida: // The Gnathostomulids 375 // Body Wall, Support, and Locomotion 376 Nutrition, Circulation, Excretion, and Gas Exchange 376 Nervous System 377 Reproduction and Development 377 Phylum Loricifera: // The Loricifera ns 377 Phylum Cycliophora: // The Cycliophorans 378 Some Phylogenetic Considerations 381 // XII CONTENTS // Phylum Annelida: The Segmented Worms 387 // Taxonomic History and Classification 388 The Annelid Bauplan 395 // Body Forms 395 // Body Wall and Coelomic Arrangement 397
Support and Locomotion 400 Feeding 405 Digestive System 410 // Circulation and Gas Exchange 413 Excretion and Osmoregulation 417 Nervous System and Sense Organs 420 Regeneration and Asexual Reproduction 425 Sexual Reproduction and Development 427 Siboglinidae: The Beard Worms 434 Taxonomic History 434 The Tube, Body Wall, and Body Cavity 434 Nutrition 436 // Circulation, Gas Exchange, Excretion, and Osmoregulation 436 Nervous System and Sense Organs 437 Reproduction and Development 437 // Annelid Phylogeny 438 // Sipuncula and Echiura 445 // The Sipunculans 445 // Taxonomic History and Classification 447 // The Sipunculan Bauplan 447 // Body Wall, Coelom, Circulation, and Gas Exchange 447 // Support and Locomotion 449 Feeding and Digestion 449 Excretion and Osmoregulation 450 Nervous System and Sense Organs 450 Reproduction and Development 451 // The Echiurans 451 // Taxonomic History and Classification 452 The Echiuran Bauplan 453 Body Wall and Coelom 453 Support and Locomotion 453 Feeding and Digestion 454 Circulation and Gas Exchange 455 Excretion and Osmoregulation 456 Nervous System and Sense Organs 456 Reproduction and Development 456 Some Comments on Phylogeny 457 // J  The Emergence of the Arthropods: Onychophorans, Tardigrades, Tri lobi tes, and the Arthropod Bauplan 461 // Phylum Onychophora 463 // Phylum Tardigrada 469 // An Introduction to the Arthropods 475 // Taxonomic History and Classification 475 // Synopses of the Five Arthropod Subphyla 476 // The Arthropod
Bauplan and Arthropodization 476 // The Body Wall 478 // Arthropod Appendages 479 // Support and Locomotion 482 // Growth 485 // The Digestive System 489 Circulation and Gas Exchange 489 // Excretion and Osmoregulation 491 Nervous System and Sense Organs 492 Reproduction and Development 495 // The Tri lo bites (Subphylum Trilobitomorpha) 497 // General Body Form 497 Internal Anatomy 499 Development 499 // The Evolution of Arthropods 499 // The Origin of the Arthropoda 499 Evolution within the Arthropoda 500 Emerging Views of Arthropod Relationships 503 Where Are We Now? 506 // CONTENTS XIII // I Phylum Arthropoda: The Crustacea S M // Synopses of Crustacean Taxa 517 The Crustacean Bauplan 550 // Locomotion 551 Feeding 557 Digestive System 561 Circulation and Gas Exchange 563 Excretion and Osmoregulation 568 Nervous System and Sense Organs 570 Reproduction and Development 573 Crustacean Phylogeny 579 // Classification of the Crustacea 514 Subphylum Crustacea 514 // J ? Phylum Arthropoda: // Their Kin) 589 // The Hexapoda (Insects and // Hexapod Classification 593 Subphylum Hexapoda 594 Synopses of Major Hexapod Taxa 594 The Hexapod Bauplan 601 // General Morphology 601 Locomotion 607 Feeding and Digestion 610 Circulation and Gas Exchange 617 Excretion and Osmoregulation 618 Nervous System and Sense Organs 619 Reproduction and Development 623 // Hexapod Evolution 628 // The Origin of the Hexapoda 628 The Origin of Insect Flight 629 Evolution within the Hexapoda 630 // Phylum Arthropoda:
The Myriapods (Centipedes, Millipedes, and Their Kin) 637 // Myriapod Classification 639 Subphylum My riapoda 639 Synopses of Myriapod Taxa 639 The Myriapod Bauplan 640 // Head and Mouth Appendages 642 Locomotion 642 // Feeding and Digestion 644 Circulation and Gas Exchange 644 Excretion and Osmoregulation 646 Nervous System and Sense Organs 646 Reproduction and Development 647 Myriapod Embryogeny 649 Myriapod Phylogeny 649 // XIV CONTENTS // I CI Phylum Arthropoda: The Cheliceriformes 6S3 // Subphylum Cheliceriformes 654 Synopses of the Chelicerate Taxa 656 The Chelicerate Bauplan 666 // Spinnerets, Spider Silk, and Spider "Webs" 667 // Locomotion 670 // Feeding and Digestion 672 // Circulation and Gas Exchange 678 // Excretion and Osmoregulation 679 // Nervous System and Sense Organs 680 // Reproduction and Development 683 // The Class Pycnogonida 691 The Pycnogonid Bauplan 692 // External Anatomy 692 Locomotion 695 Feeding and Digestion 695 Circulation, Gas Exchange, and Excretion 695 Nervous System and Sense Organs 696 Reproduction and Development 696 Cheliceriform Phylogeny 696 // 20 Phylum Mollusca 701 // Taxonomic History and Classification 702 The Molluscan Bauplan 715 // The Body Wall 718 // The Mantle and Mantle Cavity 719 // The Molluscan Shell 720 // Torsion, or "How the Gastropod Got Its Twist" 725 Locomotion 728 Feeding 733 Digestion 741 // Circulation and Gas Exchange 744 Excretion and Osmoregulation 747 Nervous System 748 Sense Organs 752 // Cephalopod Coloration
and Ink 754 Reproduction 755 Development 759 // Molluscan Evolution and Phylogeny 761 // 2 j Lophophorates 771 // The Lophophorates: An Overview 771 Taxonomic History 772 The Lophophorate Bauplan 773 Phylum Phoronida 773 The Phoronid Bauplan 774 Body Wall, Body Cavity, and Support 775 The Lophophore, Feeding, and Digestion 776 Circulation, Gas Exchange, and Excretion 776 Nervous System 777 Reproduction and Development 777 // Phylum Ectoprocta 778 The Ectoproct Bauplan 779 // The Body Wall, Coelom, Muscles, and Movement 783 // Zooid Interconnections 785 The Lophophore, Feeding, and Digestion 785 Circulation, Gas Exchange, and Excretion 788 Nervous System and Sense Organs 788 Reproduction and Development 789 // Phylum Brachiopoda 792 The Brachiopod Bauplan 793 // The Body Wall, Coelom, and Support 793 The Lophophore, Feeding, and Digestion 795 Circulation, Gas Exchange, and Excretion 796 Nervous System and Sense Organs 796 Reproduction and Development 796 Lophophorate Phylogeny 798 // CONTENTS XV // ) } Phylum Echinodermota 801 // Taxonomic History and Classification 803 The Echi noderm Bauplan 806 // Body Wall and Coelom 808 Water Vascular System 810 Support and Locomotion 813 Feeding and Digestion 814 // Circulation and Gas Exchange 823 Excretion and Osmoregulation 824 Nervous System and Sense Organs 825 Reproduction and Development 826 // Echi noderm Phylogeny 830 // / ? Other Deuterostomes: Chaetognatha, Hemichordata, Chordata 839 // Taxonomic History and Classification 839
Phylum Chaetognatha: Arrow Worms 84 7 The Chaetognath Bauplan 84 7 Phylum Hemichordata: // The Hemichordates 847 The Hemichordate Bauplan 849 Phylum Chordata: The Chordates 854 The Urochordates (Tunicates) 855 The Tunicate Bauplan 857 The Cephalochordates 864 The Cephalochordate Bauplan 865 Phylogenetic Considerations 868 // OÁ Perspectives on Invertebrate Phylogeny 873 // A Word about Characters 876 Metazoan Evolution 876 // The Tree 876 // Metazoan Roots 876 // Evolution within the Metazoa 877 // Other Ideas about Animal Phylogeny 882 // Molecular Phylogenetics 882 Evolutionary Developmental Biology 884 // Appendix A: Common Human Diseases Transmitted by Insects 890 // Appendix B: Data Matrix for Analysis of Metazoan Phylogeny 892 // Illustration Credits 897 // Index 903

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