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Bibliografická citace

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BK
4th ed.
Mountain View : Mayfield Publishing Company, c1999
xxii,586 s. : il.

objednat
ISBN 1-55934-988-3 (váz.)
Obsahuje tabulky, fotografie, předmluvu, dodatky, glosář, index
Filozofie - dějiny - pojednání
000078414
Contents // Chapter 1 Preface vii Powerful Ideas 1 Philosophical Questions 3 The Divisions of Philosophy 9 The Benefits of Philosophy 13 Two Myths about Philosophy 14 Arguments 16 Suggested Further Readings 18 // ? Part One METAPHYSICS AND EPISTEMOLOGY: EXISTENCE AND KNOWLEDGE 21 // Chapter 2 Early Philosophy 22 The Milesians 25 Pythagoras 27 Heraclitus and Parmenides 28 Empedocles and Anaxagoras 30 The Atomists 32 Checklist 35 Questions for Discussion and Review 35 Suggested Further Readings 36 // Chapter 3 Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle 37 Socrates 37 Plato 41 // x i i i // xiv Contents // Plato’s Metaphysics: The Theory of Forms 41 Plato’s Theory of Knowledge 45 // Aristotle 47 // SELECTION 3.1: Plato, Republic 52 // SELECTION 3.2: Plato, Meno 59 // Checklist 64 // Questions for Discussion and Review 65 // Suggested Further Readings 65 // Chapter 4 The Philosophers of the Hellenistic and Christian Eras // Metaphysics in the Roman Empire 69 Plotinus 69 St. Augustine 71 Augustine and Skepticism 73 Hypatia 76 // The Middle Ages and Aquinas 78 // SELECTION 4.1: St. Augustine, Confessions 83 // Checklist 88 // Questions for Discussion and Review 88 // Suggested Further Readings 88 // Chapter 5 The Modern Period 90 // Descartes and Dualism 94 // Skepticism As the Key to Certainty 97 The “Clear and Distinct” Litmus Test 97 // Hobbes and Materialism 101 Perception 101 Difficulties 103 // Spinoza and Conway 103 // The Metaphysics of Anne Conway 103 Spinoza 105 // John Locke,
Berkeley, and Idealism 107 Representative Realism 108 George Berkeley 111 Material Things As Clusters of Ideas 113 // Concents XV // SELECTION 5.1: SELECTION 5.2: // Chapter 6 // SELECTION 6.1: SELECTION 6.2: SELECTION 6.3: SELECTION 6.4: // Chapter 7 // René Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy 115 // George Berkeley, Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 118 // Checklist 120 // Questions for Discussion and Review 121 Suggested Further Readings 121 // The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries 123 // David Hume 127 // The Quarter Experiment 129 Hume on the Self 130 Hume on Cause and Effect 131 Immanuel Kant 133 // The Ordering Principles of the Mind 133 Perceptions Must Be Conceptualized and Unified 135 Things-in- Themselves 136 The Nineteenth Century 137 Main Themes of Hegel 138 // Reactions: Kierkegaard, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche 140 John Stuart Mill 143 // David Hume, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding 144 Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason 147 Georg Hegel, The Philosophy of History 148 // Arthur Schopenhauer, The World As Will and Representation 149 // Checklist 155 // Questions for Discussion and Review 155 Suggested Further Readings 156 // The Continental Tradition 157 // Existentialism 160 Two Existentialists 164 Albert Camus 165 Jean-Paul Sartre 168 Phenomenology 172 Martin Heidegger 173 // XV i Contents // SELECTION 7.1: Jean-Paul Sartre, Existentialism and Humanism 178 // SELECTION 7.2: Albert Camus, The Myth of Sisyphus 181 // Checklist
182 // Questions for Discussion and Review 182 Suggested Further Readings 183 // Chapter 8 The Pragmatic and Analytic Traditions 184 // Pragmatism 187 Analytic Philosophy 190 What Analysis Is 190 The Evolution of Analytic Philosophy 191 Experience, Language, and the World 196 Antirepresentationalism 203 The Philosophy of Mind 206 Dualism 206 Behaviorism 208 Identity Theory 212 Functionalism 213 // SELECTION 8.1: Elizabeth Anscombe, Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Mind 217 // SELECTION 8.2: J. J. C. Smart, Sensations and Brain Processes 218 SELECTION 8.3: Richard Rorty, Objectivity, Relativism, and Truth 220 // Checklist 221 // Questions for Discussion and Review 222 Suggested Further Readings 223 // Part Two // MORAL AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY 225 // Chapter 9 Moral Philosophy 226 // The Early Greeks 229 Plato 230 // A Complete Ethical Theory 234 Aesara, the Lucanian 234 Aristotle 236 // Contents xvii // Epicureanism and Stoicism 238 Epicureanism 238 The Stoics 239 Christianizing Ethics 242 St. Augustine 242 St. Hildegard of Bingen 243 Heloise and Abelard 245 St. Thomas Aquinas 248 Hobbes and Hume 249 Hobbes 249 Hume 252 // Value Judgments Are Based on Emotion, Not Reason 252 Benevolence 253 // Can There Be Ethics after Hume? 254 Kant 255 // The Supreme Principle of Morality 256 Why You Should Do What You Should Do 256 The Utilitarians 258 Bentham 258 Mill 260 // SELECTION 9.1: SELECTION 9.2: SELECTION 9.3: SELECTION 9.4: SELECTION 9.5: SELECTION 9.6: // Friedrich Nietzsche 263
Plato, Gorgias 264 Epicurus, Epicurus to Menoeceus 267 Epictetus, The Encheiridion 268 // Immanuel Kant, Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals 270 John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism 272 Friedrich Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil 275 Checklist 279 // Questions for Discussion and Review 280 Suggested Further Readings 281 // Chapter 10 Political Philosophy 283 // Plato and Aristotle 287 Plato 28 7 Aristotle 289 // Natural Law Theory and Contractarian Theory 291 Augustine and Aquinas 291 Hobbes 292 // xvii i Contents // Two Other Contractarian Theorists 296 John Locke 296 // Locke and the Right to Property 299 Separation of Power 300 Jean-Jacques Rousseau 301 Mary Wollstonecraft 305 American Constitutional Theory 306 // Natural Law and Rights in the Declaration of Independence 307 Natural Law and Rights in the US. Constitution 307 The Right to Privacy 308 Classic Liberalism and Marxism 308 Harriet Taylor 309 John Stuart Mill 310 // From Liberalism to Marxism via Utopianism 312 Karl Marx 314 // SELECTION 10.1: Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan 321 SELECTION 10.2: John Stuart Mill, On Liberty 325 // SELECTION 10.3: Anne Doyle Wheeler and Wilham Thompson, The Appeal of One Half of the Human Race 327 // Checklist 328 // Questions for Discussion and Review 330 Suggested Further Readings 331 // Chapter 11 Recent Moral and Political Philosophy 333 // G. E. Moore 333 // W. D. Ross 339 // Emotivism and Beyond 340 // John Rawls, a Contemporary Liberal 344 // The Fundamental Requirements of the Just
Society 344 The Veil of Ignorance and the Original Position 346 The Two Principles of Social Justice 346 The Rights of Individuals 347 Why Should I Accept That? 348 Robert Nozick’s Libertarianism 349 A Minimal State Is Justified 350 // Only the “Night-Watchman” State Does Not Violate Rights 350 The Rights of Individuals 352 // Contents xix // Communitarian Responses to Rawls 352 Alasdair MacIntyre and Virtue Ethics 353 Feminist Thought 355 // Androgyny As an Alternative 359 Problems with Androgyny As an Ideal 362 Feminist Moral Theory 365 // Justice, Gender, and the Family: Susan Moller Okin 369 Herbert Marcuse, a Contemporary Marxist 371 SELECTION il.I : John Rawls, A Theory ofJustice 374 // SELECTION 11.2: Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State, and Utopia 375 SELECTION 11.3: Susan Moller Okin, Justice, Gender, and the Family 377 // SELECTION 11.4: Nel Noddings, Caring: A Feminist Approach to Ethics and Moral Education 382 // Checklist 384 // Questions for Discussion and Review 386 Suggested Further Readings 387 // Part Three // PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION: // REASON AND FAITH // Chapter 12 Philosophy and Belief in God 390 // Two Christian Greats 394 Anselm 395 Aquinas 397 // Mysticism 400 // Seventeenth-Century Perspectives 403 Descartes 403 Leibniz 405 // Eighteenth-Century Perspectives 408 Hume 408 Kant 412 // Nineteenth-Century Perspectives 415 Newman 415 Kierkegaard 418 Nietzsche 419 James 420 // 389 // XX Contents // Twentieth-Century Perspectives 424 God and Logical Positivism
424 The Unfolding of God 426 selection 12.1: St. Anselm, Proslogion 429 SELECTION 12.2: St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica 430 SELECTION 12.3: Friedrich Nietzsche, The Gay Science 431 SELECTION 12.4: Antony Flew, Theology and Falsification 432 SELECTION 12.5: Mary Daly, After the Death of God the Father 434 Checklist 437 // Questions for Discussion and Review 438 Suggested Further Readings 439 // Part Four // POST-MODERN CRITIQUE 441 // Chapter 13 An Era of Suspicion 442 // Jürgen Habermas 445 // Michel Foucault 448 // Structuralism versus Deconstruction 450 // Richard Rorty 452 // Feminist Critiques 454 // Sexism and Language 455 Pornography 456 // The Importance of Recognizing Diversity 45 7 Feminist Epistemology 458 Ecofeminism 459 // SELECTION 13.1: Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality 463 // SELECTION 13.2: Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilization 464 // SELECTION 13.3: Karen J. Warren, The Power and the Promise of Ecological Feminism 465 Checklist 469 // Questions for Discussion and Review 469 Suggested Further Readings 470 // Contents XX i // Chapter 14 Eastern Influences 471 // Hinduism 474 Buddhism 476 Buddha 477 Taoism 481 Lao Tzu 482 Chuang Tzu 486 Confucianism 490 Confucius 490 Mencius 494 Zen Buddhism 499 Hui Neng 499 // Stirring Up the Melting Pot of Eastern Philosophy 501 Murasaki 503 Dogen 505 // The Philosophy of the Samurai (c. 1100-1900) 508 // The Influence of Confucius 509 The Influence of Zen Buddhism 511 SELECTION 14.1: Confucius, ???/eccs 513
SELECTION 14.2: Dwight Goddard, zd., The Buddhist Bible 515 Checklist 518 // Questions for Discussion and Review 519 Suggested Further Readings 520 // Chapter 15 Other Voices 521 // Historical Background 526 Africa 529 // Oral and Traditional Philosophy 531 The Americas 534 // African-American Thought 535 Latin American Thought 540 South Asia 542 Satyagraha 543 Metaphysics 544 // XX i i Concents // SELECTION 15.1: SELECTION 15.2: SELECTION 15.3: SELECTION 15.4: SELECTION 15.5: SELECTION 15.6: // SELECTION 15.7: SELECTION 15.8: // Léopold Sédar Senghor, On African Socialism 546 // Desmond Tutu, My Vision for South Africa 547 // Martin Luther King, Jr., The Sword That Heals 548 // Carlos Astrada, Existentialism and the Crisis of Philosophy 550 // Francisco Miró Quesada, Man without Theory 552 // Sonia Saldivar-Hull, Feminism on the Border: From Gender Politics to Geopolitics 554 // Mohandas K. Gandhi, Satyagraha 556 Rabindranath Tagore, Towards Universal Man 558 // Checklist 559 // Questions for Discussion and Review 560 Suggested Further Readings 561 // Appendix 1: Truth 563 Appendix 2: Knowledge 566 Glossary/Index 569

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