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Bibliografická citace

Politeness (@@20121104-17:58:49@@) -- 
0 (hodnocen0 x )
(16.5) Půjčeno:33x 
BK
Reprint.
Cambridge : Cambridge University, 1996
xiv,345 s.

objednat
ISBN 0-521-31355-4 (brož.)
Studies in interactional sociolinguistics ; [vol.] 4
Obsahuje rejstříky.
Bibliografie: s. 301-327.
Chování společenské - konverzace - učebnice
000080619
CONTENTS // Symbols and abbreviations xii // Foreword by John J. Gumperz xiii // Introduction to the reissue 1 // Notes 51 // 1 Introduction 55 // 1.1 Prologue 55 // 1.2 The problem 56 // 1.3 Method 58 // 2 Summarized argument 59 // 3 The argument: Intuitive bases and derivative definitions 61 // 3.1 Assumptions: Properties of interactants 61 // 3.1.1 Face 61 // 3.1.2 Face as wants 62 // 3.1.3 Rationality 64 // 3.2 Intrinsic FTAs 65 // 3.2.1 First distinction: Kinds of face threatened 65 // 3.2.2 Second distinction: Threats to H’s face versus threats to S’s 67 // 3.3 Strategies for doing FTAs 68 // 3.4 Factors influencing the choice of strategies 71 // 3.4.1 The payoffs: a priori considerations 71 // 3.4.2 The circumstances: Sociological variables 74 // 3.4.2.1 Computing the weightiness of an FTA // 3.4.2.2 Context-dependence of P, D, and R // 3.4.2.3 P, D, and R as independent variables // 3.4.2.4 Ambiguity and disambiguation as evidence for P, D, and R // 3.4.3 The integration of assessment of payoffs and weighting of // risk in the choice of strategies 83 // 4 On the nature of the model 84 // 4.1 Remarks on alternative models 84 // 4.2 Toward a formalization 87 // 5 Realizations of politeness strategies in language 91 // 5.1 Introduction 91 // 5.2 Bald on record 94 // 5.2.1 Cases of non-minimization of the face threat 95 // 5.2.2 Cases of FTA-oriented bald-on-record usage 98 // 5.3 Positive politeness 101 // 5.3.1 Claim common ground 103 // Strategy 1 : Notice, attend to
H (his interests, wants, needs, 103 goods) 104 // Strategy 2: Exaggerate (interest, approval, sympathy with H) 106 Strategy 3: Intensify interest to H 107 // Strategy 4: Use in-group identity markers Address forms // Use of in-group language or dialect Use of jargon or slang Contraction and ellipsis // Strategy 5 : Seek agreement 112 // Safe topics Repetition // Strategy 6: Avoid disagreement 113 // Token agreement Pseudo-agreement White lies Hedging opinions // Strategy 7 : Presuppose/raise/assert common ground 117 // Gossip, small talk Point-of-view operations Personal-centre switch: S to H Time switch Place switch // Avoidance of adjustment of reports to H’s point of view Presupposition manipulations Presuppose knowledge of H’s wants and attitudes Presuppose H’s values are the same as S’s values Presuppose familiarity in S-H relationship Presuppose H’s knowledge // Strategy 8: Joke 124 // 5.3.2 Convey that S and H are cooperators 125 // Strategy 9 : Assert or presuppose S’s knowledge of and concern // for H’s wants 125 // Strategy 10: Offer, promise 125 // Strategy 11 : Be optimistic 126 // Strategy 12: Include both S and H in the activity 127 // Strategy 13: Give (or ask for) reasons 128 // Strategy 14: Assume or assert reciprocity 129 // 5.3.3 Fulfil H’s want for some X 129 // Strategy 15: Give gifts to H (goods, sympathy, understanding, // cooperation) 129 // 5.4 Negative politeness 129 // 5.4.1 Be direct 130 // Strategy 1 : Be conventionally indirect 132
// Politeness and the universality of indirect speech acts Degrees of politeness in the expression of indirect speech acts // 5.4.2 Don’t presume/assume 144 // Strategy 2: Question, hedge 145 // Hedges on illocutionary force Hedges encoded in particles Adverbial-clause hedges Hedges addressed to Grice’s Maxims Hedges addressed to politeness strategies Prosodic and kinesic hedges // 5.4.3 Don’t coerce H 172 // Strategy 3: Be pessimistic 173 // Strategy 4: Minimize the imposition, R* 176 // Strategy 5 : Give deference 178 // 5.4.4 Communicate S’s want to not impinge on H 187 // Strategy 6: Apologize 187 // Admit the impingement Indicate reluctance Give overwhelming reasons Beg forgiveness // Strategy 7: Impersonalize S and H 190 // Performatives Imperatives Impersonal verbs Passive and circumstantial voices // Replacement of the pronouns T and ‘you’ by indefinites // Pluralization of the ‘you’ and ‘I’ pronouns Address terms as ‘you’ avoidance Reference terms as T avoidance Point-of-view distancing // Strategy 8: State the FTA as a general rule 206 // Strategy 9: Nominalize 207 // 5.4.5 Redress other wants of H’s 209 // Strategy 10: Go on record as incurring a debt, or as not // indebting H 210 // 5.5 Off record 211 // 5.5.1 Invite conversational implicatures 213 // Strategy 1 : Give hints 213 // Strategy 2: Give association clues 215 // Strategy 3: Presuppose 217 // Strategy 4: Understate 217 // Strategy 5 : Overstate 219 // Strategy 6 : Use tautologies 220
// Strategy 7: Use contradictions 221 // Strategy 8: Be ironic 221 // Strategy 9: Use metaphors 222 // Strategy 10: Use rhetorical questions 223 // 5.5.2 Be vague or ambiguous: Violate the Manner Maxim 225 // Strategy 11 : Be ambiguous 225 // Strategy 12 : Be vague 226 // Strategy 13: Over-generalize 226 // Strategy 14: Displace H 226 // Strategy 15: Be incomplete, use ellipsis 227 // 5.6 Conclusion to section 5.00 227 // 6 Derivative hypotheses 228 // 6.1 Exploitations of strategies 228 // 6.1.1 Trying to re-rank R, P, or D 228 // 6.1.2 Use of non-expectable strategy to insult 229 // 6.2 Mixture of strategies 230 // 6.2.1 The delicacy of the interactional balance 231 // 6.2.2 Moods 231 // 6.3 FTAs and conversational structure 232 // 7 Sociological implications 238 // 7.1 Social theory and the study of interaction 238 // 7.2 Sociological applications 242 // 7.2.1 Ethos 243 // 7.2.2 Distribution of strategies 253 // 8 Implications for language studies 255 // 8.1 Face wants as functional pressures on language 255 // 8.1.1 Functionalism in linguistic theory 255 // 8.1.2 Relations between structure and usage 258 // 8.1.3 Examples 262 // 8.1.3.1 Ironic composition and understatement // 8.1.3.2 Lexical usage // 8.1.3.3 Phonology and prosody // 8.1.3.4 Indirect speech acts // 8.1.3.5 Hedges // 8.1.3.6 Impersonalization mechanisms The passive // Impersonal modals // 8.1.3.7 Honorifics // 8.2 Implications for sociolinguistics 280 // 9 Conclusions 283 // Notes 285 // References 301 // Author
index 328 // Subject index 333

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