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Bibliografická citace

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0 (hodnocen0 x )
BK
1st ed.
Cambridge : Cambridge University, 1997
240 s.

objednat
ISBN 0-521-49880-5 (brož.)
Obsahuje úvod, rejstříky
Bibliografie: s. 209 - 227
Jazyky cizí - vyučování - příručky učitelské
Psychologie pedagogická - jazyky cizí - vyučování - využití - příručky
000087567
Contents // Thanks page viii // Acknowledgements ix // Introduction 1 // 1 An introduction to educational psychology: // behaviourism and cognitive psychology 5 // 1.1 Introduction 5 // 1.2 Educational psychology // 1.3 Approaches to educational psychology // 1.4 The positivist school // 1.5 Cognitive psychology 13 // 1.6 Conclusion 29 // 2 Further schools of thought in psychology: // humanism and social interactionism 30 // 2.1 Introduction 30 // 2.2 Humanistic approaches 30 // 2.3 Social interactionism 38 // 2.4 A social constructivist model 42 // 2.5 Conclusion 44 // 3 What do teachers bring to the teaching-learning // process? 46 // 3.1 Introduction 46 // 3.2 Studies in effective teaching 46 // 3.3 A constructivist view of education 49 // 3.4 A constructivist view of teaching 51 // 3.5 The teacher as reflective practitioner 53 // 3.6 Teachers’ beliefs 56 // 3.7 Conclusion 63 // v // 40 r-- oo // Contents // 4 What can teachers do to promote learning? 65 // 4.1 Introduction 65 // 4.2 Feuerstein’s theory of mediation 67 // 4.3 Application of mediation theory 79 // 4.4 Investigating mediation in language classrooms 83 // 4.5 Conclusion 84 // 5 The contribution of the individual student to the // learning process 88 // 5.1 Introduction 88 // 5.2 Some problems with the notion of individual differences 89 // 5.3 An alternative approach 96 // 5.4 The development and importance of self-concept 97 // 5.5 Locus of control 101 // 5.6 Attribution theory 104 // 5.7 Conclusion 107
6 What makes a person want to learn? Motivation // in language learning 111 // 6.1 Introduction 111 // 6.2 Early psychological views on motivation 112 // 6.3 Motivation in foreign and second language learning 115 // 6.4 A cognitive view of motivation 119 // 6.5 A social constructivist perspective 119 // 6.6 A proposed definition of motivation 120 // 6.7 A model of motivation 121 // 6.8 Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation 123 // 6.9 Perceived value of the activity 125 // 6.10 Arousal 126 // 6.11 Learners’beliefs about themselves 127 // 6.12 Setting and achieving goals 131 // 6.13 The involvement of significant others 133 // 6.14 Summary 136 // 6.15 Drawing it all together 137 // 6.16 Conclusion 141 // 7 How does the learner deal with the process of // learning? 143 // 7.1 Introduction 143 // 7.2 Learning strategies 144 // 7.3 Skills and strategies 145 // 7.4 Learning to learn 147 // 7.5 Metacognitive strategies 148 // Contents // 7.6 Summary 148 // 7.7 Language learning strategies 149 // 7.8 Strategy training 156 // 7.9 Learner training in foreign language teaching 160 // 7.10 Procedures for strategy training in foreign and second // language teaching 162 // 7.11 Conclusion 162 // 8 The place of tasks in the language classroom 167 // 8.1 Introduction 167 // 8.2 Tasks in foreign language teaching 167 // 8.3 A cognitive processing approach 174 // 8.4 An educational perspective on tasks 183 // 9 The learning context 188 // 9.1 Why study learning environments? 188 // 9.2 Ecological
perspectives 189 // 9.3 Environmental preferences 191 // 9.4 Classroom structure 192 // 9.5 Group processes 194 // 9.6 Classroom climate 195 // 9.7 Teacher behaviour as part of the learning environment 199 // 9.8 Individual perceptions of environments 200 // 9.9 Conclusion 202 // 10 Putting it all together 203 // References 209 // Subject index 228 // Author index 235 // Subject index // ability, 105,131 // ability grouping, see streaming // accommodation, 22, 23 // achievement motivation, see motivation // action research, 54 // adaptation, 22 // Adaptive Learning Environment Model (ALEM), 102-3 // adolescence, 32, 98, 99, 102, 126 advance organisers, 17 affective factors, 37 see also emotions affective strategies, see strategies agency, a sense of, 127-9 analytic learning style, 91 see also learning style anxiety, 37, 38, 94, 154 approach/avoidance ratio, 114 aptitude, 18, 58, 94 see also Skehan, aptitude tests, Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT), intelligence aptitude tests, 18 arousal, 120,126-7 // see also optimal arousal, flow assessment, 42 assimilation, 22-3 attention, 15-16 attitude, 115 // Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB), 116 attribution theory, 104-7 attunement strategy, 132 audiolinguai approach, see audiolingualism // audiolingualism, 10, 11, 12, 16 Australia, 192, 200 autonomy, 31, 68, 71, 75, 147 avoidance, see effort avoidance awareness of change, 72, 75-6 // Bangalore Project, 168 behaviour modification, 13 behaviourism, 8-13, 112-13, 134 belief in positive
outcome, 72, 76-7 see also mediation beliefs // about self, 28, 62-3, 131-2 about learners, 28, 57-60 about learning, 28, 60-2 teachers’, see teachers’ beliefs belonging; a sense of, 33, 35, 38, 44, 69, 79 // see also mediation Brazil, 131 // Canada, 117 // challenge, 25, 31-3, 35, 69, 75, 83, // 129 // see also goal setting, flow, mediation change, 55, 61, 81, 96 change, awareness of, 69, 75-6 see also mediation choice, 36,38, 119, 206 see also motivation, cognitive view of classical conditioning, see conditioning classroom climate, 195-9 Classroom Environment Scale (CES), 196 // COBUILD, 13, 14 // 228 // Subject index // Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA), 162-3 cognitive development, 21-2 Cognitive Education through Science Education (CASE), 50 cognitive map, 41, 175-8 cognitive processes, 174-83 cognitive psychology, 13-29 cognitive strategies, see strategies cognitive style, 91 see also individual differences collaboration, 42 see also co-operation co-operation, 77-8 see also collaboration communication strategies, see strategies communicative language teaching, 12, 16,38-9, 78 // community language learning (CLL), 37 Comparisons Instrument, 81-3 see also Instrumental Enrichment compensation strategies, see strategies competence, a sense of, 69, 72-3, 81 see also mediation // competitive environments/structures, // 31, 192-4 // concrete-operational stage, 22 conditioning, 8 confidence, 72 // constructivism, 2, 14, 21-30, 48, 55, // 88, 96 // constructivist
approach, see constructivism // see also social constructivism, personal construct psychology constructs, 27, 99 // see also Personal Construct Theory, Repertory Grid Technique constructivist view of education, 49-51 constructivist view of teaching, 51-3 context, 20, 43-4, 166, 207-8 see also environment, social context control, 101, 107, 119, 128, 130, 206 of behaviour, 69, 73-4, 82-3, 135, 206 // see also mediation, locus of control // controllability, 105 CORT programme, 157 creativity, 32, 35, 38 critical reflection, 54-5 see also reflection culture, 78-9, 161, 188 transmission of, 40, 42, 67, 70 culturally deprived, 67 curiosity, 35,126 // curriculum, 24-5, 28, 32, 35-6, 53-4, 100, 132, 147 // decision, 119,121 Denmark, 161 desire, 120 differentiation, 36 discipline, 134 discovery approach, 24, 26 drills, 10-11 drive-reduction, 113 drives, 33 // dynamic assessment, 42 // ecological perspective, 189-90 ecosystem, 189 // education, 5-7, 20, 24-5, 27, 33, 35-6, 44, 49, 132, 147, 204-5 educational psychology, 6-8 educational system, 36, 189 effective teaching, see good teaching effectiveness motivation, see motivation efficient cognitive functioning, 67 see also Feuerstein effort, 105, 119, 129 effort avoidance, 132 ego identity, 78 ego involvement, 131 Embedded Figures Test, 91-3 emotions, 28, 30, 38, 133, 144, 153-6 see also affective factors empowering, 68 enactive thought, 26 England, 133 // environment, 34, 35, 44, 191 classroom, 195-202 emotional, 44 // 229 // Subject index
// environment (cont.) // learning, 23, 188-9, 192-1 physical, 44, 191 school, 44 // individual perception of, 192, 200-2 epigenetic principle, 31 equilibration, 22 errors, 10, 11 espoused theories, 54 ethos, see classroom climate eugenics movement, 18 executive processes, 145 executive skills, 20, 145 experiential learning, 35 external factors, 104-6, 113, 121, 139-10 // externalisers, 101 // extrinsic motivation, see motivation extroversion, 90 // facilitator, 59 // failure, 18, 31, 58, 104, 107, 130-2 fear of, 114, 131 feedback, 98, 134-6 controlling, 135 informational, 135 feeling of belonging, 77, 79 see also mediation feelings, see emotions Feuerstein’s Instrumental Enrichment, see Instrumental Enrichment (IE) field dependence, 91 see also individual differences field independence, 91 see also individual differences flow, 126-7 // Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale, 94 // formal-operational stage, 22 Freudian theory, see Freud fun, 50 // g-factor, 18 // see also intelligence gender difference in attribution, 66 // in motivational style, 131 in strategy use, 154, 161 global learning style, 91 see also learning style goal orientation, 131, 145 goal setting, 69, 72, 74, 81, 83, 103, 119-20, 131-4, 158,206 see also mediation good teacher studies, 46-9 good teaching, elements of, 46-8 group formation activities, 79 see also feeling of belonging group processes, 193, 194-5 group work, 78, 193 // Harvard Physics Project, 197 Harvard Project Zero, 150 holistic approach to
learning, 40 homeostasis, 114 horizons of understanding, 52 humanism, 30-8, 62-3 humanistic approach in language teaching, 37-8 humanistic education, 63 hypothetical constructs, 19, 90 see also individual differences // IQ Tests, 15, 18, 19 see also intelligence iconic thought, 26 identity, 32, 36, 38 independence, 35 India, 158 // individual, 23, 30, 36, 107-8 individual characteristics,88-9, 91-5 individual differences, 88-95 see also aptitude, cognitive style, extroversion, field dependence, field independence, intelligence, introversion, personality Individualised Classroom // Environmental Questionnaire (ICEQ), 197-8 individualised learning, 37 individuality, 32, 69, 78-9, 81 see also mediation // 230 // Subject index // individualistic environments, 192-4 individuation, 78 see also Erikson // information processing, 13, 15-16, // 159 // information theorists, see information processing instruction, 23, 66 // Instrumental Enrichment (IE), 41, 50, 81, 156-7, 175, 178-83 see also cognitive maps, Feuerstein instrumental orientation, see motivation integrative motivation, see motivation integrative orientation, see motivation intelligence, 15, 17-20,58, 131-2 see also IQ tests // intentionality, see shared intention interaction, 11, 39, 42, 68, 173—4, 206 see also social interactionism interactionism, see social interactionism interest, 121 interlanguage, 23, 66 internal factors, 104-6, 121, 137-9 internalisers, 101 introversion, 90 see also individual differences involvement,
127 Israel, 41 Italy, 178 // Japan, 117, 124, 150, 178 // knowledge, 8, 46-8, 49, 53-5, 96, 155-6, 158 Kuwait, 178 // laddering, 66 language awareness, 74 learned helplessness, 128, 130-1 learner autonomy, see autonomy learner centred teaching, 63 see also humanistic approach in language teaching, humanistic education // learner training, 20, 73, 147,160-2 see also learning to learn // learning difficulties, 41 learning goals, see mastery goals Learning Environment Inventory (LEI), 197 // learning potential, see potential Learning Preference Scales, 192 learning strategies, see strategies learning style analytic, 91 global, 91 // see also individual differences Learning Style Inventory (LSI), 191 learning to learn, 24, 42, 147-8 see also learner training life-span view, 6, 33 linkword method, see mnemonic strategies // locus of causality, 105, 128 see also attribution theory locus of control, 101—4, 128 logical positivism, see positivism long-term memory, 16 looking-glass self, 97 luck, 105 // macrosystem, 189 mastery, 129-30, 193 mastery goals, 131-2 mastery oriented, see mastery maturation, 22 // meaning, 17, 21, 23, 27-8, 38, 40, 42, 50, 52, 180, 205 // mediation, 40, 42, 65, 83, 133 1, 186 evaluation of, 83-7 Feuerstein’s theory of, 67-79 key features of, 68-79 mediated learning experience, 42, 67 mediating adult, 67 mediator, 40, 42, 67, 68 mediator, teacher as, 133-4, 207 reciprocation, 58 // Mediation Questionnaire, 83, 86-7 mediation theory, application of, 79-83 memorisation
strategies, 125, 160-1 memory, 16-17 mesosystem, 189 // 231 // Subject index // metacognitive strategies, see strategies metaphors, 201 microsystem, 189 mistakes, see errors mnemonic strategies, 16-17, 160 see also memorisation strategies Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT), 18, 94 motivation, 94 // achievement motivation, 113-14 a model of, 121-2, 140 cognitive view of, 118-19, 140 effectiveness motivation, 129 extrinsic motivation, 123-5 initiating motivation, 121 instrumental orientation, 116-17 integrative motivation, 117 integrative orientation, 116 intrinsic motivation, 123-5 motivational style, 130-1 proposed definition of, 120 sustaining motivation, 121 unconscious, 113 see also Attitude Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) // My Class Inventory (MCI), 197 // naive psychology, 104 National Curriculum (UK), 35 need to achieve, 129 see also achievement motivation needs, 33, 112-13 being needs, 33-5 deficiency needs, 33 hierarchy of needs, 33-5 see also Maslow negotiation, 71,132 Netherlands, 132-3, 199, 200 normal distribution curve, 91 // operant conditioning, 9 see also conditioning operants, see operant conditioning opinions, 135 // optimal arousal, 114-15, 126 see also motivation // Orientation in Space Instrument, 180-1 see also Instrumental Enrichment orienting function, 49 origins, 128 // see also locus of causality Oxfordshire Skills Programme, 143 // parents, 12, 31, 40, 67, 98 pastoral curriculum, 79 see also feeling of belonging pawns, 98, 128 see also locus of causality
perceived value of an activity, 125-6 performance goals, 131-2 permissiveness, 63 persistence, 120-2, 129 personal authenticity, 125, 164 Personal Construct Psychology, see Personal Construct Theory Personal Construct Theory, 14, 27-8, 38,50 // personal control, see control personal identity, see identity personal meaning, 21, 51, 180 see also meaning, value personal resources dependence grid, 201 // personality, 133 phase of learning, 176-8 Philippines, 117 // Philosophy for children, 50, 143, 157 see also Lipman Plowden Report, 59 positive outcomes, belief in, 69 see also mediation Positive Teaching, 47,135 positivism, 8-13, 46 positivist school, see positivism potential, 41-2 praise, 132, 134-6 pre-operational stage, 21 problem-solving, 49-50, 73 procedural syllabus, 168-9 process-based instruction, 159-60 process-product, 47 process syllabus, 78 // 232 // Subject index // programmed learning, 75 psychic view, 30 psychometrics, 18,89-90 punishment, 31, 57, 58, 123, 134-5 purpose beyond the here and now, 69, 71, 80, 82 // see also mediation, key features of purpose, purposefulness, 24-6, 38, 164, 180 // qualitative analysis, 107 Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI), 199 // reattribution training, 106 reciprocation, 68 see also mediation reciprocal teaching, 157 reciprocity, 68, 71 reflection, 7, 54 reflective practitioner, 53-6 see also critical reflection rehearsal, 16 // reinforcement, 9, 10, 12,112, 134 reliability of tests, 90 reluctant learners, 134 Repertory Grid
Technique, 200 resistance, 35, 57-8 responsibility, personal, 103, 128 rewards, 112-13, 123, 128, 134-6 Rosenberg Global Self Esteem Scale, // 100 // Russia, 9, 40 // scaffolding, 158-9, 162 // Schools Council Humanities Project, // 25 // Self Description Questionnaire, 99 self esteem, 33, 38, 62, 72-3, 97, // 100-1, 130 // self evaluation, 35, 38, 76 self-image, 35, 72-3, 97 self-actualization, 34, 36 self-competence, 31 self-concept, 97-101, 206 see also locus of control // self-confidence, see confidence self-direction, 71, 147 self-efficacy, 97-8, 129 see also self-concept self-management skills, see Adaptive Learning Environment Model (ALEM) // self-worth concern, 130-1 sense of competence, see competence, a sense of // sensori-motor stage, 21 sensory register, 16 shared intention, 69-72 see also mediation sharing, 69, 77-8, 83 see also mediation short-term memory, 16 significance, 69-70 see also mediation, key features of significant others, 67, 133-6 silent way, 37 Singapore, 197 skills, 145-6 // social comparison theory, 97-8 social constructivism, 5, 42—4,119-20 see also social constructivist model, constructivism // social constructivist model of teachinglearning process, 42—4 social context, 5, 28, 42, 67, 116, 206 see also context, environment social interactionism, 2, 28, 38-42, // 96 // see also social context social learning theory, 101, 129 Social Psychology of Language, 115-16 social strategies, see strategies socioeducational model, 116 Somerset Thinking
Skills Programme, 143, 157 // spiral curriculum, 25 stability, 105 // stages of learning, 21-2, 31-3 standardisation of tests, 90 stimulus-response, 8-10 Strategic Teaching Model, 158-9 // 233 // Subject index // strategies, 144-6 affective strategies, 152-3 cognitive strategies, 144-5, 148, 152-3 // communication strategies, 150-1 compensation strategies, 152-3 language learning strategies, 149-56 learning strategies, 144-5, 149 macro-strategies, 145 memory strategies, 152-3 metacognitive strategies, 148-50, 152-6 // micro-strategies, 145 social strategies, 145, 151-3 strategy training, 156-8, 162 see also learner training streaming, 17, 89 // structural cognitive modifiability, 41 success, 104, 130 suggestopaedia, 37 Summerhill, 59 // sustaining motivation, see motivation symbolic thought, 26 systems approach, 190 // tactics, 145 Taiwan, 83, 98 task, 43-4, 207 task-based approach, 50, 60 task-based syllabus, 168 task design, 165-6 task difficulty, 105 task involvement, 131 tasks, components of, 169-71 tasks, grading of, 171-3 tasks in foreign language teaching, 167-74 // teachability hypothesis, 66 Teacher Mediation Questionnaire, 83, 85 // teachers’ attitudes, 157,165, 206-7 teachers’ behaviours, 160, 199-200 teachers’ beliefs, 28, 43 1, 53 1, 56-63, 186, 206-7 beliefs about learners, 28, 57-60 // beliefs about learning, 28, 60-2 beliefs about themselves, 28, 53, 62-3 // teachers’confidence, 11-12 teachers’ roles, 24, 133-6,165 see also mediation teachers’ theories,
7, 54 teaching, a constructivist view of, 51-3 teaching style, 198 teaching thinking, 49-50,143 see also learner training, learning to learn, strategy training Temporal Relations Instrument, 180, 182 // see also Instrumental Enrichment tests, standardised, 41 theories-in-action, 54 thinking // enactive, see enactive thought iconic, see iconic thought symbolic, see symbolic thought teaching of, see teaching thinking thinking skills programmes, 50, 143 transcendence, 71 see also mediation trust, 31-2, 36, 44, 59 // United Kingdom, 35, 48, 50, 59, 133 United States, 8, 9, 50, 117, 135, 143, 200 // validity, 19, 90 value, in tasks, 7 // personal, 6-7, 38, 56, 70 see also purpose, meaning values, 44 Vietnam, 154 // vocabulary teaching, 16-17, 160-1 // W-A-Y (Who Are You) technique, 99 whole-person, 6, 24, 33, 37-8, 44, 62 working memory, 16 // zone of proximal development (ZPD), 40, 65-6, 136, 157 // 234 // Author index // Abelson, R. P., 15 // Ackwieso, J., 12, 47, 134, 135 // Adey, P., 50 // Aikman, G., 191 // Alexander, L. G., 10, 11 // Aljaafreh, A., 39 // Ames, C., Ill, 119, 131, 193 // Ames, R. E., Ill, 119 // Appel, G., 39 // Apter, S. J., 190 // Archer, S. L., 32 // Argyris, C., 53, 56 // Arlin, M., 103 // Ascione, F. R., 101 // Ashman, A. F., 159, 160 // Ashton-Warner, S., 51 // Atkinson, J. W., 113 // Atkinson, R. C., 15, 16, 17 // Ausubel, D., 17 // Bachor, D., 77 Ballinger, R., 143 Bandura, A. R., 129 Bannister, D., 38 Barnes, J., 99, 192 Baudy, J. S., 191 Bead, N., 200
Beery, R. G., 193 Bennett, N., 47, 48, 78 Berg, W. R., 101 Berlyne, D. E., 115, 126 Best, J. B., 15 Biddle, S., 107 Blagg, N., 80, 143, 157 Bligh, D„ 78 // Bolitho, R., 74 Bornstein, M. H., 66, 67 Boud, D„ 54 Boulton, M., 78 Boy, A. V., 36, 62 Bransford, J. D., 172 Brekelmans, M., 199 Brindley, G., 173 Bronrenbrenner, U., 189 Brophy, J. E., 47, 199, 200 Brown, A. L., 66,157,158 Brown, G., 21, 172 Brown, H. D., 6, 88 Brown, S., 48 Brumrit, C., 73 // Bruner, J. S., 24, 25, 26, 27, 57, 66, 67 // Burden, R. L., 77, 84,157, 179, 190, 197, 198 // Burns, R. B., 98, 100 Button, L., 79 // Caffyn, R., 135 Campione,]. C., 66, 157 Candlin, C., 44, 168, 172, 173 Carr, E., 158 Carraher, D. W., 131 Carraher, T., 131 Carroll,]. B., 18,94 Chamot, A., 149, 150, 158, 159, 160, 162, 163 Chapelle, C., 91 Chin, C., 83 Clandinin, D., 52 Clark, C., 51 // 235 // Author index // Cohen, J., 19 Cole, M., 40 Coles, M.J., 143, 148 Connell, J. P., 98 Connelly, F., 51 Conway, R. N., 159, 160 Cooley, C. H„ 97 Cooper, H. M., 101, 102 Coopersmith, S. A., 100 Covington, M. V., 130, 193 Cowie, H., 78 Craft, A., 157 Craske, M. L., 106, 130 Creton, H. A., 199 Groll, P., 200 Crookall, D., 115, 161 Crookes, G., 118, 168 Csikszentmihalyi, M., 75, 125, 126, 127 // Curran, C, 37 // d’Anglejan, A., 91 Damon, W., 97, 98 Das, J. P., 159 Davies, P., 50 Davis, B. D., 201 Davis, J., 36 Deaux, K., 106 De Bono, E., 157 de Charms, R., 128 De Corte, E., 132 Deci, E. L., 135 De Guerrero, M. C., 39 Desforges, C., 21 Dewey,
J., 49 Dickinson, L., 73, 76 Dickson, W. P., 148 Donaldson, M., 21, 22 Donato, R., 39 Dörnyei, Z., 118 Doyle, W., 199 Dreyer, P. J., 32 Dunn, K., 191 Dunn, R., 191 Dunne, E., 78 Dweck, C. S., 130, 131 // Ecob, R., 200 Ehrman, M., 88, 91, 94 Elkind, D., 21 Ellis, G., 73, 149, 160 Ellis, R., 66, 88, 117, 149 Ericksen, S., 47 // Erikson, E. H., 31, 32, 33, 35, 63, 75, 78,111 // Farley, F., 16 Feest, G., 78 Ferrara, R. A., 157 Feuerstein, R., 39, 40, 41, 42, 50, 64, 66,67,68,71,72, 77, 79,81,82, 84, 133, 156, 157, 173, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 185 // Feunteun, A., 79 // Findley, M. J., 101, 102 // Flavell, J. H., 16,21, 148, 154, 155 // Foley, J., 39 // Fontana, D., 13 // Frankl, V., 34 // Fransella, F., 38 // Fraser, B. J., 197, 198,200, 201 Freire, P., 49, 58 Freud, S., 30, 31,33, 113 Fry, P. S., 188 Fürst, N., 47 // Gairns, R., 80 // Galbraith, V., 88 // Galton, M., 200 // Gardner, H., 18, 19, 50 // Gardner, R. C, 88, 115, 117,118, 154 // Gass, S. M., 168 // Gattengo, C., 37 // Gergen, K., 97 // Giles, H., 116 // Glasser, W., 58 // Good, T. L., 47, 199, 200 // Gow, L., 60 // Gradman, H., 91 // Greene, D., 135 // Greenhalgh, P., 188 // Greenwald, A. G., 97 // 236 // Author index // Griffiths, R., 91 Griggs, S. A., 191 Gruneberg, M. M., 17 Gurney, P. W., 98, 199 // Habermas, J., 201 Hadfield, J., 194, 195 Halpern, D. F., 157 Hamachek, D. E., 31, 32, 36, 98 Hanania, E., 91 Handy, C., 76 Hanson, J., 143 // Harri-Augstein, S., 27, 50, 51, 201 // Hart, D., 97, 98
// Harter, S., 123, 124, 129 // Hartup, W., 97 // Hastings, N. J., 106, 133 // Hebb, D. O., 114 // Heider, F., 104 // Helmke, A., 47 // Hermans, J. J., 199 // Hewstone, M., 106 // Hickson, J., 191 // Higgins, E. T., 97 // Hoddell, M., 136 // Hoffman, M., 50, 67, 82, 177, 178 // Holt, J., 52, 132, 147 // Hoomayers, H. P., 199 // Hornby, T. A., 197 // Horwitz, E., 90, 94 // Huang, D. H., 98 // Hunt, J. McV., 115, 126 // Dardi, B., 98 Ishida, T., 151 // Jackson, P. W., 196 Jacobowski, E., 201 Jacobs, G. F., 16 Jarman, R. F., 159 John-Steiner, V. P., 39 Johnson, D. W., 78, 193 Johnson, M., 172 Johnson, R. T., 78, 193 Jonas, B. S., 77, 84 Jones, B., 158, 159 // Kaiser, R., 190 Kappers, K. J., 74, 132 Kaplan, P. S., 6 Karp, S. A., 92 Keen, T. R., 27 // Kelly, G., 14, 27, 28,38, 113, 200 // Kember, D., 60 // Kemmis, S., 54 // Keogh, D., 54 // Kingsbury, R., 10, 12 // Kirby, J. R., 145 // Klatzky, R. L., 15 // Klavas, A., 191 // Klein, P. S-, 77 // Knowles, M., 147 // Kornhaber, M. L., 50 // Kozulin, A., 65 // Krashen, S., 66 // Krohne, H. W., 130 // Kumaravadivelu, B., 168 // Kynch, M. D., 97 // Lambert, W., 117 Land, A. J., 191 Lantolf, J. P., 39 Lanx, L., 130 // Lawrence, D., 79, 98, 100, 101 // Lawson, M. J., 157 // Leggett, E. L., 131 // Legutke, M., 44, 168, 169, 170, 181 // Leontiev, A. N., 9 // Lepper, M. R., 135, 136 // Levi, P., 34 // Levine, D., 115 // Levine, J. M., 102 // Levy, J., 199, 200 // Lewis, D., 200 // Lidz, C. D., 178 // Lightbown, P., 88 // Lindquist, B., 190
Lindsay, G., 78 // Lipman, M., 50, 143, 157 // Lipsitt, L. P., 148 // Lodewijks, H., 132 // Long, M. H„ 66, 168 // Louden, W., 52 // 237 // Author index // Lozanov, G., 37 Lukmani, Y., 117 Luria, A. R., 9, 159 // McIntyre, D., 48 // MacIntyre, P. D., 117, 154 // Maclure, S., 50 // McCormick, D., 39 // McCormick, M. K., 100 // McGroarty, M., 161 // Maehr, M. L, 106 // Maldarez, A., 194 // Male, D. B., 125 // Marcia, J., 32 // Marsh, H. W., 99 // Martin, D., 77, 84 // Maslow, A. H., 33, 34, 35, 63, 113 // Maltesen, D. R., 32 // Maughan, B., 189 // Meighan, J., 57 // Meighan, R., 57, 59, 60 // Merrett, F., 12, 47, 134, 135 // Merry, R., 17 // Miller, A., 78 // Miller, G., 13 // Miller, R., 50, 67, 82,177, 178 // Moll, L. C., 66 // Molnar, A., 190 // Montessori, M., 49 // Moon, J., 73 // Moos, R. H., 196, 197 // Mortimore, P., 200 // Murphey, M., 107 // Murphy, D., 168 // Murray, H. A., 113 // Müssen, P., 157 // Nakamura, J., 75, 123, 127 Neill, A. S., 59 Nešpor, J., 56 Nicholls, J. G., 106, 131 Niitsuma, H., 117, 124 NisbetJ., 143, 145, 146, 147 Nisbet, R. E., 135 Norem-Hebeisen, A. A., 97 Novak, J., 97 // Nunan, D., 50, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173 Nyikos, M., 154 // Ogle, D„ 158 // O’Malley, J., 149, 150, 158, 159, 160, 162, 163 // O’Neill, R., 10, 12 Oilman, P. K-, 92 Orlofsky, J. L., 32 Oscanyan, F. S., 50 Oustan, J., 189 Owens, L., 192 // Oxford, R., 16, 88, 91, 94, 115, 118, 149, 151, 152, 153,154,161 // Pajares, M. F., 56 Palincsar, A. S., 157, 158 Parker, J., 99
Parmentier, R., 132 Pavlov, I., 8 Perrott, E., 47 Peterson, P., 51 Petty, M., 143 // Piaget, J., 14, 21, 22, 234, 24, 25, 26, 39, 67, 176 Pielstick, N. L., 192 Pienemann, M., 66 Pine, G. J., 36, 62 Plas, J. M., 190 Politzer, R., 161 Pope, M., 27 Poteet, J. A., 12 Prabhu, N. S., 50, 168, 172 Price, G., 191 Pring, R., 13 Purkey, W. W„ 97 // Quicke, J., 154 // Rackford, D. L., 84, 157 Rand, Y., 50,67, 82, 177, 178 Raskin, E., 92 Raugh, M. R., 17 Redman, S., 80 Reese, H. W„ 148 // 238 // Author index // Rees-Miller, J., 161 Renaud, C., 91 Resnick, L. ?., 148 Rice, D. N., 157 Richards, J., 37 Ripple, R. E., 36 Robinson, W. D., 143, 148 Rodgers, T., 37 Rogers, C. R., 35, 37, 59 Rogoff, B., 40 Rollett, B. A., 132 Rose, A., 101 Rosenberg, M., 100 Rosenshine, B., 47 Ross, S., 154 Rost, M., 154 Rotter, J. B., 101 // Rubin, J., 147, 149, 150, 151, 160 // Ruble, D. N., 97 // Ruddock, J., 55 // Rutter, M., 189, 200 // Ryan, R. M., 135 // Salmon, P., 27, 28, 52, 53 // Sammons, P., 200 // Sapon, S. M., 18, 94 // Savell, J. M., 84, 157 // Schank, R. C., 15 // Schinke-Llano, L., 39 // Schliemann, A. D., 131 // Schmidt, R., 118 // Schneider, W., 47 // Schön, D. A., 53, 54, 55, 56 // Schunk, D. H., 129 // Seligman, M. E. P., 128, 130 // Sharp, A. M., 50 // Sharron, H., 157, 179 // Shavelson, R. J., 99 // Shayer, M., 50 // Shearin, J., 118 // Sheen, R., 91 // Shiffrin, R. M., 15, 16 // Shucksmith, J., 143, 145, 146, 147 // Sinclair, B., 73, 149, 160 // Singer, R. N., 107 // Simon, B., 200
Skehan, P., 88, 91, 94 // Skinner, B. F., 9, 12 // Smith, P., 78 // Smyth, J., 55 // Spada, N., 88 // Span, P., 132 // Spence, J. T., 15, 16,17 // Spence, W. K., 15, 16, 17 // Stenhouse, L., 25 // Sternberg, R. J., 20, 145, 188 // Stevick, E., 37 // Stoll, L., 200 // Sugden, D., 79 // Suls, J., 97 // Sutherland, P., 21, 22, 24 Sutter, 161 // Tannenbaum, A. J., 000 Tarone, E., 151 Tennant, L. K., 107 Thacker, J., 78 // Thomas, H., 44, 168, 169, 170, 181 // Thomas, L., 27, 50, 51, 201 // Tobin, K., 201 // Toffler, A., 76 // Tomlinson, B., 74 // Tongue, R., 73 // Tran, T. V., 154 // Travers, R., 47 // Treffinger, D. J., 36 // Tremblay, P. F., 118 // Trickett, E. J., 196 // Twohig, P. T., 84, 157 // Vale, D., 79 // Van der Ley, A., 74, 132 Van Werkhoven, W., 74, 132 Vernon, P. E., 19 Villamil, O. S., 39 von Glasersfeld, E., 49, 50, 51, 55 Vygotsky, L. S., 9, 39, 40, 41, 42, 65, 84, 157 // Walberg, H.J., 196, 197, 201 Walker, D., 54 Wang, M., 102 // 239 // Author index // Warren, N., 106 Warren, P., 83, 85, 178 Waterman, A. S., 32 Watson, J. B., 8 Weiner, B., 104, 105 Weinstein, C. S., 56, 98 Weinert, F. E., 47 Weller, K., 157 // Wenden, A., 147, 148, 149, 154, 156, 160 // Wertsch, J. V., 39, 40 Whalley, M. J., 143, 157 Wheldall, K., 12,47, 134, 135 White, R., 168 White, R. W., 129 Whitley, T. W., 103 // Williams, G., 143 Williams, J. H., 100 Williams, M., 140, 180 Willis, D., 14 Willis, J., 14 Witkin, H. A., 92 Wittrock, M. C, 16 Wortman, C. B., 130 155, Wubbels,T., 199,200 Wylie,
R. C., 99 // Yeadon, T., 10, 12 Young, D. J., 90, 94 Yule, G., 172 // Zeeman, R. D., 100 // 240

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