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Bibliografická citace

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BK
6th ed.
New York : John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2005
v, 356 s. : il. ; 28 cm

objednat
ISBN 0-471-42084-0 (brož.) ISBN !978-0-471-48244-4 (chyb.)
000131131
BRIEF CONTENTS // CHAPTER 1 // CHAPTER 2 // CHAPTER 3 // CHAPTER 4 // CHAPTER 5 // CHAPTER 6 // CHAPTER 7 // CHAPTER 8 // CHAPTER 9 // CHAPTER 10 // CHAPTER 11 // CHAPTER 12 // CHAPTER 13 // CHAPTER 14 // CHAPTER 15 // CHAPTER 16 // CHAPTER 17 // CHAPTER 18 // CHAPTER 19 // CHAPTER 20 // CHAPTER 21 // CHAPTER 22 // CHAPTER 23 // CHAPTER 24 // CHAPTER 25 // CHAPTER 26 // APPENDICES // SCOPE AND HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF CHEMISTRY 27 MICROSCOPY AND STAINING 51 // CHARACTERISTICS OF PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS 76 // ESSENTIAL CONCEPTS OF METABOLISM 112 // GROWTH AND CULTURING OF BACTERIA 142 // MICROBIAL GENETICS 172 // GENE TRANSFER AND GENETIC ENGINEERING 204 // AN INTRODUCTION TO TAXONOMY: THE BACTERIA 232 // VIRUSES 264 // EUKARYOTIC MICROORGANISMS AND PARASITES 299 STERILIZATION AND DISINFECTION 328 ~ // ANTIMICROBIAL THERAPY 352 // HOST-MICROBE RELATIONSHIPS AND DISEASE PROCESSES 385 EPIDEMIOLOGY AND NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS 411 INNATE HOST DEFENSES 446 // IMMUNOLOGY I: BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SPECIFIC IMMUNITY AND IMMUNIZATION 470 // IMMUNOLOGY II: IMMUNOLOGICAL DISORDERS AND TESTS 506 // DISEASES OF THE SKIN AND EYES; WOUNDS AND BITES 547 // UROGENITAL AND SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES 577 // DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 608 // ORAL AND GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES 643 // CARDIOVASCULAR, LYMPHATIC, AND SYSTEMIC DISEASES 683 // DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 720 // ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 747 // APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY 779 // A METRIC SYSTEM MEASUREMENTS,
CONVERSIONS, AND MATH TOOLS A-l ? CLASSIFICATION OF BACTERIA AND VIRUSES A-3 C WORD ROOTS COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED IN MICROBIOLOGY A-14 D SAFETY PRECAUTIONS IN THE HANDLING OF CLINICAL SPECIMENS A-17 E METABOLIC PATHWAYS A-18 // GLOSSARY G-l // CLINICAL CASE STUDY ANSWERS ANS I CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS ANSWERS ANS-2 SELF-QUIZ ANSWERS ANS-7 PHOTO CREDITS PC-1 XViii INDEX 1-1 // CONTENTS // CHAPTER 1 // SCOPE AND HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY 1 // Why Study Microbiology? 2 Scope of Microbiology 3 The Microbes 4 The Microbiologists 6 Historical Roots 8 The Germ Theory of Disease 11 Early Studies 11 // Pasteur’s Further Contributions 12 Koch’s Contributions 13 Work Toward Controlling Infections 14 Emergence of Special Fields of Microbiology 14 Immunology 15 Virology 16 Chemotherapy 16 Genetics and Molecular Biology 18 Tomorrow’s History 19 Genomics 23 // Retracing Our Steps 23 /Terminology Check 24 / Clinical Case Study 24 / Critical Thinking Questions 24 / Self-Quiz 25 / Explorations on the Web 26 // Light Microscopy 57 // The Compound Light Microscope 58 Dark-Field Microscopy 59 Phase-Contrast Microscopy 59 Nomarski (Differential Interface Contrast) // Microscopy 60 Fluorescence Microscopy 60 Confocal Microscopy 60 Digital Microscopy 61 Electron Microscopy 62 // Transmission Electron Microscopy 63 Scanning Electron Microscopy 64 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy 65 Techniques of Light Microscopy 67 // Preparation of Specimens for the Light Microscope 67 Principles of Staining 68 // Retracing
Our Steps 72 / Terminology Check 73 / Clinical Case Study 73 / Critical Thinking Questions 74 / Self-Quiz 74 / Explorations on the Web 75 // animations: Staining Bacteria:The Gram Stain // CHAPTER 2 // FUNDAMENTALS OF CHEMISTRY 27 // Why Study Chemistry? 28 Chemical Building Blocks and Chemical Bonds 28 Chemical Building Blocks 28 The Structure of Atoms 28 Chemical Bonds 30 Chemical Reactions 32 Water and Solutions 32 Water 32 // Solutions and Colloids 33 Acids, Bases, and pH 34 Complex Organic Molecules 36 Carbohydrates 37 Lipids 38 Proteins 42 // Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids 45 Retracing Our Steps 47 /Terminology Check 48 / Clinical Case Study 48 / Critical Thinking Questions 48 / Self-Quiz 49 / Explorations on the Web 50 // animations Chemical Bonding, Acids and Bases, Polarity W and Solubility,Types of Reactions and Equilibrium // CHAPTER 3 // microscopy and staining si // Historical Microscopy 52 Principles of Microscopy 52 Metric Units 52 // Properties of Light: Wavelength and Resolution 53 Properties of Light: Light and Objects 55 // CHAPTER 4 // CHARACTERISTICS OF PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS 76 // Basic Cell Types 77 Prokaryotic Cells 78 // Size, Shape, and Arrangement 78 An Overview of Structure 80 Tlie Cell Wall 80 The Cell Membrane 87 Internal Structure 87 External Structure 89 Eukaryotic Cells 95 // An Overview of Structure 95 The Plasma Membrane 96 Internal Structure 96 External Structure 99 Evolution by Endosymbiosis 101 The Movement by Substances Across Membranes
102 Simple Diffusion 103 Facilitated Diffusion 103 Osmosis 104 Active Transport 106 Endocytosis and Exocytosis 106 Retracing Our Steps 107 /Terminology Check 109 / Clinical Case Study 109 / Critical Thinking Questions 109 / Self-Quiz 110 / Explorations on the Web 111 // animations: Prokaryotic Cell Structure and Function, Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function. Simple Diffusion. Mitorsis and Meiosis Compared, Osmosis, Endocytosis and Exocytosis // XIX // CONTENTS // XX // CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 7 // ESSENTIAL CONCEPTS OF METABOLISM 112 MICROBIAL GENETICS 172 // Metabolism: An Overview 113 Enzymes 115 // Properties of Enzymes 115 Properties of Coenzymes and Cofactors 116 Enzyme Inhibition 118 // Factors That Affect Enzyme Reactions 119 Anaerobic Metabolism: Glycolysis and Fermentation 120 Glycolysis 120 // Alternatives to Glycolysis 122 Fermentation 122 // Aerobic Metabolism: Respiration 125 The Krebs Cycle 125 // Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation 125 The Significance of Energy Capture 129 The Metabolism of Fats and Proteins 130 Fat Metabolism 131 Protein Metabolism 132 Other Metabolic Processes 132 Photoautotrophy 132 Photoheterotrophy 134 Chemoautotrophy 134 The Uses of Energy 134 // Biosynthetic Activities 134 Membrane Transport and Movement 136 Bioluminescence 137 // Retracing Our Steps 138 / Terminology Check 139 / Clinical Case Study 140 / Critical Thinking Questions 140 / Self-Quiz 140 / Explorations on the Web 141 // ANIMATIONS: Functions of Enzymes and Uses of
ATP, //  Competitive and Noncompetitive Inhibition of Enzymes, Metabolism -The Sum of Catabolism and Anabolism, Cell Respiration, Catabolism of Fats and Proteins, Nonspecific Disease-Resistance Mechanisms // CHAPTER 6 // GROWTH AND CULTURING OF BACTERIA 142 // Growth and Cell Division 143 // Microbial Growth Defined 143 Cell Division 143 Phases of Growth 143 Measuring Bacterial Growth 145 Factors Affecting Bacterial Growth 150 Physical Factors 151 Nutritional Factors 155 Sporulation 158 // Other Sporelike Bacterial Structures 159 Culturing Bacteria 160 // Methods of Obtaining Pure Cultures 160 Culture Media 160 // Methods of Perfoming Multiple Diagnostic Tests 165 Living, But Nonculturable, Organisms 166 Retracing Our Steps 167 /Terminology Check 169 / Clinical Case Study 169 / Critical Thinking Questions 170 / Self-Quiz 170 / Explorations on the Web 171 // animations Binary Fission, Endospore Formation, //  Budding,and Streak Plate Method // An Overview of Genetic Processes 173 The Basis of Heredity 173 // Nucleic Acids in Information Storage and Transfer 174 DNA Replication 176 Protein Synthesis 178 Transcription 178 Kinds of RNA 179 Translation 181 // The Regulation of Metabolism 182 // The Significance of Regulatory Mechanisms 182 Categories of Regulatory Mechanisms 183 Feedback Inhibition 184 Enzyme Induction 186 Enzyme Repression 187 Mutations 188 // Types of Mutations and Their Effects 189 Phenotypic Variation 190 Spontaneous and Induced Mutations 191 Chemical Mutagens
191 Radiation as a Mutagen 192 The Repair of DNA Damage 192 The Study of Mutations 193 The Ames Test 198 // Retracing Our Steps 199 / Terminology Check 200 / Clinical Ca Study 201 / Critical Thinking Questions 201 / Self-Quiz 201 / Explorations on the Web 203 // ANIMATIONS: Eukaryotic Genes Contain Introns, //  Polymerase Chain Reaction, DNA Replication in a Prokaryote, Protein Synthesis, End Product Inhibition, Enzyr Induction - the lac Operon, Mutations,Thymine Dimer Repa // CHAPTER 8 // GENE TRANSFER AND GENETIC ENGINEERING 204 // The Types and Significance of Gene Transfer 205 Transformation 205 // The Discovery of Transformation 205 The Mechanism of Transformation 206 The Significance ofTransfomation 207 Transduction 208 // The Discovery of Transduction 208 The Mechanisms of Transduction 208 The Significance of Transduction 210 Conjugation 211 // The Discovery of Conjugation 211 The Mechanisms of Conjugation 211 The Significance of Conjugation 214 Gene Transfer Mechanisms Compared 215 Plasmids 216 // Characteristics of Plasmids 216 Resistance Plasmids 216 Transposons 217 Bacteriocinogens 218 Genetic Engineering 219 Genetic Fusion 220 • Protoplast Fusion 220 Gene Amplification 221 // CONTENTS // Recombinant DNA Technology 221 Hybridomas 226 // Weighing the Risks and Benefits of Recombinant DNA 226 Retracing Our Steps 228 / Terminology Check 229 / Clinical Case Study 229 / Critical Thinking Questions 229 / Self-Quiz 230 / Explorations on the Web 231 // ANIMATIONS: Gene
Transfer-Transformation. Transduction, and Conjugation, Recombinant DNA // CHAPTER 9 // AN INTRODUCTION TO TAXONOMY: THE BACTERIA 232 // Taxonomy:The Science of Classification 233 Linnaeus, the Father of Taxonomy 233 Using a Taxonomic Key 235 Problems in Taxonomy 235 Developments Since Linnaeus’s Time 236 The Five-Kingdom Classification System 237 Kingdom Monera 237 Kingdom Protista 239 Kingdom Fungi 239 Kingdom Plantae 239 Kingdom Animalia 239 The Three-Domain Classification System 240 The Evolution of Prokaryotic Organisms 240 The Tree of Life is Replaced by a Shrub 243 The Archaea 244 Classification of Viruses 244 The Search for Evolutionary Relationships 245 Special Methods Needed for Prokaryotes 246 Numerical Taxonomy 247 Genetic Homology 248 Other Techniques 251 The Significance of Findings 251 Bacterial Taxonomy and Nomenclature 252 Criteria for Classifying Bacteria 252 The History and Significance of Bergey’s Manual 253 Problems Associated with Bacterial Taxonomy 255 // Bacterial Nomenclature 257 // Bacteria by Section of Bergey’s Manual, First Edition 257 // Bacterial Taxonomy and You 257 Retracing Our Steps 259 /Terminology Check 261 / Clinical Case Study 261 / Critical Thinking Questions 261 / Self-Quiz 262 / Explorations on the Web 263 // ANIMATIONS: Endosymbiosis, Five-Kingdom System, Shrub  of Life, Lateral Gene Transfer, and DNA Hybridization // CHAPTER 10 // VIRUSES 264 // General Characteristics of Viruses 265 What Are Viruses? 265 // Components of Viruses
265 Sizes and Shapes 266 Host Range and Specificity of Viruses 267 Origins of Viruses 268 Glassification of Viruses 269 RNA Viruses 271 DNA Viruses 274 // Emerging Viruses 276 Viral Replication 278 // General Characteristics of Replication 278 Replication of Bacteriophages 278 Lysogeny 282 // Replication of Animal Viruses 283 Latent Viral Infections 287 Culturingof Animal Viruses 287 // Development of Culturing Methods 287 Types of Cell Cultures 288 Viruses and Teratogenesis 289 Viruslike Agents: Satellites, Viroids and Prions 290 Satellites 290 Delta Hepatitis 290 Viroids 290 Prions 291 // Viruses and Cancer 293 Human Cancer Viruses 293 // How Cancer Viruses Cause Cancer 293 Oncogenes 294 // Retracing Our Steps 294/Terminology Check 296 / Clinical Case Study 297 / Critical Thinking Questions 297 / // Self-Ouiz 297 / Explorations on the Web 298 //  ANIMATION5: Viruses // CHAPTER 11 // EUKARYOTIC MICROORGANISMS // AND PARASITES 299 // Principles of Parasitology 300 // The Significance of Parasitism 300 Parasites in Relation to Their Hosts 300 Protists 301 // Characteristics of Protists 301 The Importance of Protists 301 Classification of Protists ’302 Fungi 308 // Characterictics of Fungi 308 The Importance of Fungi 309 Classification of Fungi 311 Helminths 314 // Characteristics of Helminths 314 Parasitic Helminths 316 Arthropods 321 // Characteristics of Arthropods 321 Classification of Arthropods 321 Retracing Our Steps 324 /Terminology Check 325 / Clinical Case Study 325 /
Critical Thinking Questions 326 / Self-Ouiz 326 / Explorations on the Web 327 // CHAPTER 12 // STERILIZATION AND DISINFECTION 328 // Principles of Sterilization and Disinfection 329 The Control of Microbial Growth 329 Chemical Antimicrobial Agents 330 // The Potency of Chemical Agents 330 // Evaluating the Effectiveness of Chemical Agents 330 // Disinfectant Selection 331 // Mechanisms of Action of Chemical Agents 332 // Specific Chemical Antimicrobial Agents 334 // xxi // CONTENTS // Physical Antimicrobial Agents 339 // Principlesand Applications of Heat Killing 339 Dry Heat, Moist Heat, and Pasteurization 339 Refrigeration, Freezing, Drying, and Freeze-Drying 342 Radiation 343 // Sonic and Ultrasonic Waves 345 Filtration 345 Osmotic Pressure 347 // Retracing Our Steps 348 / Terminology Check 349 / Clinical Case Study 349 / Critical Thinking Questions 349 / Self-Quiz 349 / Explorations on the Web 351 // CHAPTER 13 // ANTIMICROBIAL THERAPY 352 // Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 353 The History of Chemotherapy 353 General Properties of Antimicrobial Agents 354 Selective Toxicity 354 The Spectrum of Activity 355 Modes of Action 355 Kinds of Side Effects 358 The Resistance of Microorganisms 358 Determining Microbial Sensitivities to Antimicrobial Agents 362 The Disk Diffusion Method 362 The Dilution Method 362 Serum Killing Power 363 Automated Methods 364 Attributes of an Ideal Antimicrobial Agent 364 Antibacterial Agents 365 // Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis 365 Disrupters of Cell
Membranes 368 Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis 368 Inhibitorsof Nucleic Acid Synthesis 370 Antimetabolites and Other Antibacterial Agents 371 Antifungal Agents 374 Antiviral Agents 375 Antiprotozoan Agents 376 Antihelminthic Agents 377 // Special Problems with Drug-Resistant Hospital Infections 377 Retracing Our Steps 380Terminology Check 382 / Clinical Case Study 3827 Critical Thinking Questions 382 / Self-Quiz 383 / Explorations on the Web 384 «C) ANIMATIONS: Effects of Premature Termination of  AntibioticTreatment // CHAPTER 14 // HOST-MICROBE RELATIONSHIPS AND DISEASE PROCESSES 385 // Host-Microbe Relationships 386 Symbiosis 386 // Contamination, Infection,and Disease 387 Pathogens, Pathogenicity, and Virulence 388 Normal (Indigenous) Microflora 389 Koch’s Postulates 390 Kinds of Diseases 391 // Infectious and Noninfectious Diseases 391 Classification of Diseases 391 // XXÜ Communicable and Noncommunicable Diseases 393 // The Disease Process 393 // How Microbes Cause Disease 393 Signs, Symptoms, and Syndromes 400 Types of Infectious Disease 401 Stages of an Infectious Disease 402 Infectious Diseases—Past, Present, and Future 405 Retracing Our Steps 407 / Terminology Check 408 / Clinical Case Study 408 / Critical Thinking Questions 409 / Self-Quiz 409 / Explorations on the Web 410 // CHAPTER 15 // EPIDEMIOLOGY AND NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS 411 // Epidemiology 412 // What Is Epidemiology? 412 Diseases in Populations 412 Epidemiologic Studies 414 Descriptive Studies 415 Reservoirs
of Infection 417 Portals of Entry 419 Portals of Exit 421 Modes of Disease Transmission 421 Disease Cycles 425 Herd Immunity 425 Controlling Disease Transmission 426 Public Health Organizations 428 Notifiable Diseases 430 Nosocomial Infections 433 // The Epidemiology of Nosocomial Infections 433 Preventing and Controlling Nosocomial Infections 437 Bioterrorism 438 // Retracing Our Steps 442 /Terminology Check 443 / Clinical Case Study 44?" / Critical Thinking Questions 443 / Self-Quiz 443 / Explorations on the Web 445 // CHAPTER 16 // INNATE HOST DEFENSES 446 // Innate and Adaptive Host Defenses 447 Physical Barriers 447 Chemical Barriers 448 Cellular Defenses 449 Defensive Cells 449 Phagocytes 450 // The Process of Phagocytosis 451 Extracellular Killing 453 The Lymphatic System 453 Inflammation 456 // Characteristics of Inflammation 456 The Acute Inflammatory Process 456 Repair and Regeneration 458 Chronic Inflammation 458 Fever 458 // Molecular Defenses 459 Interferon 459 Complement 461 Acute Phase Response 464 // Retracing Our Steps 466 / Terminology Check 467 / Clinical Case Study.467/ Critical Thinking Questions 467 / Self-Quiz 468 / Explorations on the Web 469 // CONTENTS // animations: Introduction to Disease Resistance, //  Nonspecific Disease Resistance Mechanisms // CHAPTER 17 // IMMUNOLOGY I: BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY AND IMMUNIZATION 470 // Immunology and Immunity 471 Types of Immunity 471 // Acquired Immunity 471 Active and Passive Immunity 471 Characteristics
of the Immune System 472 Antigens and Antibodies 472 Cells and Tissues of the Immune System 474 Dual Nature of the Immune System 475 General Properties of Immune Responses 475 Humoral Immunity 478 // Properties of Antibodies (Immunoglobulins) 478 Primary and Secondary Responses 481 Kinds of Antigen-Antibody Reactions 483 Monoclonal Antibodies 485 Cell-Mediated Immunity 486 // The Cell-Mediated Immune Reaction 487 How Killer Cells Kill 489 The Role of Activated Macrophages 490 Superantigens 490 Mucosal Immune System 491 Factors That Modify Immune Responses 491 Immunization 492 // Active Immunization 492 Hazards of Vaccines 496 Passive Immunization 496 Future of Immunization 498 Immunity to Various Kinds of Pathogens 498 Bacteria 498 Viruses 498 Fungi 500 // Protozoa and Helminths 500 // retracing Our Steps 502 /Terminology Check 503 / Clinical Case Study 504 / Critical Thinking Questions 504 / Self-Quiz 504 / Explorations on the Web 505 // animations: Production of Monoclonal Antibodies // CHAPTER 18 // IMMUNOLOGY II: IMMUNOLOGICAL // disorders and tests soé // Overview of Immunological Disorders 507 Hypersensitivity 507 Immunodeficiency 507 Immediate (Type I) Hypersensitivity 507 Allergen 508 // Mechanism of Immediate Hypersensitivity 508 Localized Anaphylaxis 510 Generalized Anaphylaxis 511 Genetic Factors in Allergy 512 Treatment of Allergies 513 -ytotoxic (Type II) Hypersensitivity 514 Mechanism of Cytotoxic Reactions 514 Examples of Cytotoxic Reactions 514 // Immune Complex
(Type III) Hypersensitivity 516 Mechanism of Immune Complex Disorders 516 Examples of Immune Complex Disorders 517 Cell-Mediated (Type IV) Hypersensitivity 518 Mechanism of Cell-Mediated Reactions 519 Examples of Cell-Mediated Disorders 519 Autoimmune Disorders 521 Autoimmunization 522 Examples of Autoimmune Disorders 522 Transplantation 524 // Histocompatibility Antigens 525 Transplant Rejection 526 Tolerance of Fetus During Pregnancy 526 Immunosuppression 527 Drug Reactions 528 Immunodeficiency Diseases 528 // Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases 528 Secondary (or Acquired) Immunodeficiency Diseases 530 Immunological Tests 535 The Precipitin Test 535 Agglutination Reactions 537 Tagged Antibody Tests 540 // Retracing Our Steps 542 /Terminology Check 544 / Clinical Case Study 545 / Critical Thinking Questions 545 / Self-Quiz 545 / Explorations on the Web 546 // ANIMATIONS: FourTypes of Hypersenstivity,Antibody  Mediated Immunity,Cell Mediated Immunity // CHAPTER 1 9 // DISEASES OF THE SKIN AND EYES; // WOUNDS AND BITES 547 // The Skin, Mucous Membranes, and Eyes 548 The Skin 548 Mucous Membranes 549 The Eyes 549 ~ // Normal Microflora of the Skin 550 Diseases of the Skin 551 // Bacterial Skin Diseases 551 Viral Skin Diseases 554 Fungal Skin Diseases 561 Other Skin Diseases 563 Diseases of the Eyes 565 // Bacterial Eye Diseases 565 Viral Eye Diseases 566 Parasitic Eye Diseases 566 Wound and Bites 568 // Wound Infections 568 Other Anaerobic Infections 569 Anthropod Bites and Diseases
570 Retracing Our Steps 573 /Terminology Check 574 / Clinical Case Study 574 / Critical Thinking Questions 574 / Self-Quiz 574 / Explorations on the Web 576 // CHAPTER 20 // UROGENITAL AND SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES 577 // Components of the Urogenital System 578 The Urinary System 578 The Female Reproductive System 579 // xxiii // CONTENTS // The Male Reproductive System 579 Normal Microflora of the Urogenital System 580 Urogenital Diseases Usually Not Transmitted Sexually 581 Bacterial Urogenital Diseases 581 Parasitic Urogenital Diseases 586 Sexually Transmitted Diseases 586 // Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) 587 Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Diseases 587 Viral Sexually Transmitted Diseases 598 Retracing Our Steps 604 / Terminology Check 605 / Clinical Case Study 605 / Critical Thinking Questions 606 / Self-Ouiz 606 / Explorations on the Web 607 // CHAPTER 21 // DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 608 // Components of the Respiratory System 609 The Upper Respiratory Tract 609 The Lower Respiratory Tract 609 The Ears 611 // Normal Microflora of the Respiratory System 611 Diseases of the Upper Repiratory Tract 612 Bacterial Upper Respiratory Diseases 612 Viral Upper Respiratory Diseases 615 Diseases of the Lower Respiratory Tract 618 Bacterial Lower Respiratory Diseases 618 Viral Lower Respiratory Diseases 628 Fungal Respiratory Diseases 635 Parasitic Respiratory Diseases 637 Retracing Our Steps 639 /Terminology Check 640 / Clinical Case Study 640 / Critical Thinking
Questions 640 / Self-Quiz 641 / Explorations on the Web 642 // CHAPTER 22 // ORAL AND GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES 643 // Components of the Digestive System 644 The Mouth 644 The Stomach 645 The Small Intestine 645 The Large Intestine 645 Normal Microflora of the Mouth and Digestive System 645 // Diseases of the Oral Cavity 646 // Bacterial Diseases of the Oral Cavity 646 Viral Diseases of the Oral Cavity 649 Gastrointestinal Diseases Caused by Bacteria 651 Bacterial Food Poisoning 651 Bacterial Enteritis and Enteric Fevers 652 Bacterial Infections of the Stomach, Esophagus, and Intestines 659 // Bacterial Infections of the Gallbladder and Biliary Tract 661 Gastrointestinal Diseases Caused by Other Pathogens 663 Viral Gastrointestinal Diseases 663 Protozoan Gastrointestinal Diseases 667 Effects of Fungal Toxins 669 // Helminth Gastrointestinal Diseases 671 . . , // Retracing Our Steps 678 /Terminology Check 680 / Clinical Case Study 680 / Critical Thinking Questions 680 / Self-Quiz 680 / // XXiV Explorations on the Web 682 // CHAPTER 23 // CARDIOVASCULAR, LYMPHATIC, // AND SYSTEMIC DISEASES 683 // The Cardiovascular System 684 // The Heart and Blood Vessels 684 The Blood 684 // Normal Microflora of the Cardiovascular System 684 Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Diseases 685 // Bacterial Septicemias and Related Diseases 685 Helminthic Diseases of the Blood and Lymph 687 Systemic Diseases 690 // Bacterial Systemic Diseases 690 Rickettsial and Related Systemic Diseases 701 Viral Systemic
Diseases 705 Protozoan Systemic Diseases 710 Retracing Our Steps 715 /Terminology Check 717 / Clinical Ca? Study 717 / Critical Thinking Questions 717 / Self-Quiz 717 / Explorations on the Web 719 // CHAPTER 24 // DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 720 // Components of the Nervous System 721 // Normal Microflora of the Nervous System 721 Diseases of the Brain and Meninges 721 // Bacterial Diseases of the Brain and Meninges 721 Viral Diseases of the Brain and Meninges 723 Other Diseases of the Nervous System 729 Bacterial Nerve Diseases 729 Viral Nerve Diseases 734 Prion Diseases of the Nervous System 736 Parasitic Diseases of the Nervous System 739 Retracing Our Steps 742 /Terminology Check 743 / Clinical C; Study 744 / Critical Thinking Questions 744 / Self-Quiz 744 / Explorations on the Web 746 // CHAPTER 25 // ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 747 // Fundamentals of Ecology 748 // The Nature of Ecosystems 748 The Flow of Energy in Ecosystems 749 Biogeochemical Cycles 749 The Water Cycle 749 The Carbon Cycle 749 // The Nitrogen Cycle and Nitrogen Bacteria 751 The Sulfur Cycle and Sulfur Bacteria 754 Other Biogeochemical Cycles 756 The Deep Hot Biosphere 756 Air 757 // Microorganisms Found in Air 757 Methods for Controlling Microorganisms in Air 757 Soil 759 // Components of Soil 759 Microorganisms in Soil 759 Soil Pathogens 761 Caves 761 Water 762 // Freshwater Environments 762 Marine Environments 763 Deep Ocean Vents 764 // CONTENTS // Water Pollution 765 Water Purification 767 Sewage
Treatment 769 Primary Treatment 770 Secondary Treatment 770 Tertiary Treatment 771 Septic Tanks 772 Bioremediation 773 // Retracing Our Steps 774 / Terminology Check 775 / Clinical Case Study 776 / Critical Thinking Questions 776 / Self-Quiz 776 / Explorations on the Web 778 // CHAPTER 26 // APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY 779 // Microorganisms Found in Food 780 Grains 780 // Fruits and Vegetables 780 Meats and Poultry 780 Fish and Shellfish 783 Milk 783 // Other Edible Substances 785 Preventing Disease Transmission and Food Spoilage 786 Food Preservation 787 Drying and Lyophilization 788 Pasteurization of Milk 790 Standards for Food and Milk Production 790 Microorganisms as Food and in Food Production 791 Algae, Fungi, and Bacteria as Food 791 Food Production 792 Beer,Wine, and Spirits 796 Industrial and Pharmaceutical Microbiology 798 Useful Metabolic Processes 799 Problems of Industrial Microbiology 799 // Useful Organic Products 800 // Simple Organic Compounds 800 Antibiotics 800 Enzymes 801 Amino Acids 802 Other Biological Products 802 Microbiological Mining 802 Microbiological Waste Disposal 803 // Retracing Our Steps 804 / Terminology Check 805 / Clinical Case Study 805 / Critical Thinking Questions 805 / Self-Quiz 806 / Explorations on the Web 807 // APPENDICES // A Metric System Measurements, Conversions, and Math Tools A-l // ? Classification of Bacteria and Viruses A-3 C Word Roots Commonly Encountered in Microbiology A-14 // D Safety Precautions in the Handling of Clinical Specimens
A-17 E Metabolic Pathways A-18 // GLOSSARY G-l // CLINICAL CASE STUDY ANSWERS ANS I CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS ANSWERS ANS-2 SELF-QUIZ ANSWERS ANS-7 PHOTO CREDITS PC-1 INDEX 1-1 // LIST OF BOXES // APPLICATIONS // Bacterial Acids Are Eating the Last Supper 35 // Some Like It Sour 36 // Can a Cow Actually Explode? 39 // Down the Drain 42 // Howto Ruin an Enzyme 119 //  voluntary Drunkenness 124 // Light of My Death 124 // Something for Everyone 137 // Don’t Leave Home Without Your C02! 164 // Enemy DNA 176 // lf DNA Makes Only Proteins. Who Makes Carbohydrates and Lipids? 178 Can’t Beat the System 186 // Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-Key to Past and Future Worlds of DNA 196 The Uses of Extremozymes 244 // Plant Viruses 268 // Keep That Head on Your Beer! 304 // No More Frogs in Formalin 337 // Yogurt 342 // Home Canning 342 // Home Freezing 343 // When Doctors Learned to Cure 353 // Nothing Like a Bowl of Shark Fin Soup 354 // Antibiotic Resistance: Drugs in Animal Feeds 359 // Space Ride for Microbes 359 // Microbial Resistance 360 // Disarm and Kill 367 // The Role of Clostridium difficile in Antibiotic-Associated Intestinal Disease 368 Antibiotics and Acne 370 Red Man Syndrome 371 Drug-Resistant Viruses 375

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