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London : CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, c2013
xxvii, 456 s. : il. ; 28 cm

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ISBN 978-0-415-69086-7 (brož.)
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Table of contents // Preface XVII // About the authors XIX // List of tables XXI // List of figures XXV // 1 Sampling, transport and storage of samples for analysis 1 // 1.1 Introduction 1 // 1.1.1 Lot 1 // 1.1.2 Lot sample and sample unit 1 // 1.1.3 Lot sampling plans 1 // 1.1.3.1 The two-class sampling plan 2 // 1.1.3.2 The three-class sampling plan 2 // 1.1.4 Analytical unit 2 // 1.2 Collecting samples for analysis 2 // 1.2.1 Selection and preparation of containers for the sampling of foods contained // in non-individual packages 3 // 1.2.2 Procedures for the sampling of foods contained in non-individual packages 3 // 1.2.3 Sampling of foods involved in foodborne diseases 4 // 1.2.4 Sampling of water 4 // 1.3 Transportation and storage of samples until analysis 5 // 1.3.1 Foods with low water activity 5 // 1.3.2 Frozen foods 5 // 1.3.3 Refrigerated foods 5 // 1.3.4 Commercially sterile foods in sealed packages 6 // 1.3.5 Water samples 6 // 1.4 References 7 // 2 Preparation of sample for analysis 9 // 2.1 Introduction 9 // 2.2 Homogenization of samples and withdrawal of the analytical unit 10 // 2.2.1 Procedure for homogenization and withdrawal of analytical units from liquid products 10 // 2.2.2 Procedure for homogenization and withdrawal of analytical units from solid // or concentrated liquid products 11 // 2.2.3 Procedure for withdrawing the analytical unit using the surface swabbing technique 11 // 2.2.3.1 Swab sampling 11 // 2.23.2 Sponge sampling 12 // 2.2.4 Procedure
for withdrawing the analytical unit using the surface washing technique 12 // 2.2.4.1 Procedure for washing poultry carcasses 12 // 2.2.4.2 Procedure for washing other foods 14 // 2.2.4.3 Procedure for washing packages 14 // 2.2.5 Keeping of counter-samples 14 // 2.3 Preparation of the first dilution of the analytical unit 15 // 2.3.1 Diluents for presence/absence tests 15 // 2.3.2 Diluents for tests requiring differentiated handling of the sample 15 // VI Table of contents // 2.3.3 Diluents for general quantification tests 15 // 2.3.4 How to prepare an initial 1:10 (10_1) dilution 15 // 2.3.5 How to prepare an initial dilution different from 1:10 15 // 2.3.6 Procedure for the preparation of the first dilution of liquid samples 15 // 2.3.7 Procedure for the preparation of the first dilution of solid or concentrated // liquid samples 16 // 2.3.8 Procedure for the preparation of the first dilution of samples obtained // by surface swabbing or surface washing 16 // 2.4 Serial decimal dilution of the sample 16 // 2.5 References 17 // Annex 2.1 - Procedures for the homogenization of the content and withdrawal of the analytical unit // of different types of foods 18 // Annex 2.2 - Special cases in which there are variations in the analytical unit and/or dilution and/or diluents recommended for the preparation of the first dilution of samples of different types of foods 19 // 3 Basic plate count techniques for the enumeration of microorganisms 23 // 3.1 Introduction 23 // 3.2 Pour plate
technique 23 // 3.2.1 Material required for the analyses 24 // 3.2.2 Procedure 24 // 3.3 Spread plate technique 25 // 3.3.1 Material required for the analyses 26 // 3.3.2 Procedure 26 // 3.4 Drop plate technique 27 // 3.4.1 Material required for the analyses 27 // 3.4.2 Procedure 27 // 3.5 Membrane filtration 27 // 3.5.1 Material required for the analyses 28 // 3.5.2 Procedure 28 // 3.6 Counting colonies and calculating results 29 // 3.6.1 Pour plate calculations 29 // 3.6.1.1 Calculating the pour plate results in the standard situation 30 // 3.6.1.2 Calculating the pour plates results for samples prepared by the surface // swabbing technique (swabs or sponges) 33 // 3.6.1.3 Calculating the pour plate results for samples prepared by the surface // washing technique 34 // 3.6.2 Spread plate calculations 34 // 3.6.3 Drop plate calculations 34 // 3.6.4 Membrane filtration calculations 35 // 3.7 Counting colonies and calculating results according to ISO 7218:2007 35 // 3.8 References 37 // 4 Basic techniques for microbial enumeration by the most probable number method (MPN) 39 // 4.1 Introduction 39 // 4.2 Multiple dilution test 40 // 4.2.1 Material required for the analyses 41 // 4.2.2 Procedure 41 // 4.3 Single dilution test 42 // 4.3.1 Material required for the analyses 42 // Table of contents VII // 4.3.2 Procedure 42 // 4.4 Calculation of the results 42 // 4.4.1 Calculating the results of the multiple dilution test 43 // 4.4.1.1 Calculation using the MPN tables (for decimal dilutions)
43 // 4.4.1.2 Calculating using the Thomas formula (for non-decimal dilutions) 4.4.1.3 Calculating the results for samples prepared by the surface swabbing 44 // or surface washing techniques 44 // 4.4.2 Calculating the results of the single dilution test 44 // 4.4.2.1 Rules for calculations performed using the MPN-3 Table 4.4.2.2 Calculation for samples prepared by the surface swabbing or surface washing 45 // techniques 45 // 4.5 References 45 // Annex 4.1 — MPN tables 46 // 5 Basic techniques for the detection of the presence/absence of microorganisms 49 // 5.1 Introduction 49 // 5.1.1 Enrichment 49 // 5.1.1.1 Pre-enrichment 49 // 5.1.1.2 Selective enrichment 50 // 5.1.2 Isolation in solid media (selective differential plating) 50 // 5.1.3 Confirmation 50 // 5.1.3.1 Catalase test 51 // 5.1.3.2 Citrate test 51 // 5.1.3.3 Amino acid decarboxylation tests 51 // 5.1.3.4 Phenylalanine deaminase test 51 // 5.1.3.5 Carbohydrate fermentation tests 51 // 5.1.3.6 Indole test 52 // 5.1.3.7 Maionate test 52 // 5.1.3.8 Oxidation/Fermentation test (O/F) 52 // 5.1.3.9 Oxidase test 52 // 5.1.3.10 Nitrate reduction test 53 // 5.1.3.11 Urease test 53 // 5.1.3.12 Methyl Red test (MR) 53 // 5.1.3.13 Voges-Proskauer test (VP) 53 // 5.2 Material required for the analyses 54 // 5.3 Procedure 54 // 5.3.1 Pre-enrichment 54 // 5.3.2 Selective enrichment 54 // 5.3.3 Selective differential plating 54 // 5.3.3.1 Streak plating technique for obtaining pure cultures 54 // 5.3.4 Selection of colonies and
subculturing of cultures for confirmation 55 // 5.3.4.1 Technique for the subculturing of pure cultures starting // from colonies isolated from plates 55 // 5.3.5 Confirmation tests 55 // 5.3.5.1 Gram-staining (Huckers method) 55 // 5.3.5.2 Spore-staining (Schaeffer-Fui tons method) 56 // 53.53 Spore-staining (Ashbys method) 56 // 5.3.5.4 Wet mounts for direct (fresh) microscopic observation 56 // 5.4 References 56 // Vlil Table of contents // 6 Aerobic plate count 57 // 6.1 Introduction 57 // 6.1.1 The importance and significance of the total aerobic mesophilic count 57 // 6.1.2 Definition of psychrotrophics 58 // 6.1.3 Methods of analysis 58 // 6.2 Plate count method APHA 2001 for aerobic mesophilic bacteria in foods and water 59 // 6.2.1 Material required for analysis 60 // 6.2.2 Procedure 60 // 6.2.2.1 Pour plate technique 60 // 6.2.2.2 Spread plate technique 61 // 6.2.2.3 Membrane filtration technique 62 // 6.3 Petrifilm™ AO AC official methods 990.12 - 989.10 - 986.33 for aerobic mesophilic // bacteria in foods 63 // 6.3.1 Material required for analysis 63 // 6.3.2 Procedure 63 // 6.4 Plate count method APHA 2001 for aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria in foods 64 // 6.4.1 Material required for analysis 64 // 6.4.2 Procedure 64 // 6.5 References 65 // 7 Yeasts and molds 67 // 7.1 Introduction 67 // 7.1.1 Yeasts and molds in foods 67 // 7.1.2 Methods of analysis for total yeast and mold counts 68 // 7.1.3 Psychrotrophic fungi 68 // 7.1.4 Heat-resistant molds 68 // 7.1.5 Preservative-resistant
yeasts (PRY) 69 // 7.1.5.1 Zigosaccharomyces bailii (Lindner) Guilliermond 1912 69 // 7.1.5.2 Zygosaccharomyces bisporus (Naganishi) Lodder and Kreger 1952 70 // 7.1.5.3 Schizosaccharomycespombe lŔnŕnev \\&?0 70 // 7.1.5.4 Candida krusei (Castellani) Berkhout 1923 70 // 7.1.5.5 Pichia membranaefaciens Hansen 1904 70 // 7.1.6 Osmophilic yeasts 71 // 7.1.6.1 Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (Boutroux) Yarrow 71 // 7.2 Plate count method APHA 2001 for yeasts and molds in foods 71 // 7.2.1 Material required for analysis 72 // 7.2.2 Procedure 72 // 7.3 Plate count method APHA 2001 for psychrotrophic fungi in foods 74 // 7.3.1 Material required for analysis 74 // 7.3.2 Procedure 74 // 7.4 Plate count method APHA 2001 for heat-resistant molds in foods 76 // 7.4.1 Material required for analysis 76 // 7.4.2 Procedure 76 // 7.5 Presence/absence method Pitt and Hocking 2009 and Plate count method Pitt // and Hocking 2009 for preservative-resistant yeasts in foods 78 // 7.5.1 Material required for analysis 78 // 7.5.2 Procedure 78 // 7.6 Membrane filtration method APHA 2001 and Plate count method // APHA 2001 for osmophilic yeasts in foods 80 // 7.6.1 Material required for analysis 80 // 7.6.2 Procedure 80 // 7.7 References 81 // Table of contents IX // 8 Enterobacteriaceae 83 // 8.1 Introduction 83 // 8.1.1 Taxonomy 83 // 8.1.2 Methods of analysis 84 // 8.2 Plate count method APHA 2001 for Enterobacteriaceae in foods 84 // 8.2.1 Material required for analysis . 84 // 8.2.2 Procedure 84 // 8.3
Most probable number (MPN) method APHA 2001 for Enterobacteriaceae in foods 85 // 8.3.1 Material required for analysis 85 // 8.3.2 Procedure 85 // 8.4 Petrifilm™ AOAC official method 2003.1 for Enterobacteriaceae in selected foods 87 // 8.4.1 Material required for analysis 87 // 8.4.2 Procedure 87 // 8.5 References 88 // 9 Total and thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli 89 // 9.1 Introduction 89 // 9.1.1 Definition of total coliforms 89 // 9.1.2 Definition of thermotolerant coliforms 89 // 9.1.3 Escherichia coli 89 // 9.1.4 Use as indicators 90 // 9.1.5 Methods of analysis 90 // 9.2 Most probable number (MPN) method APHA 2001 for total coliforms, thermotolerant // coliforms and E. coli in foods 92 // 9.2.1 Material required for analysis 92 // 9.2.2 Procedure 93 // 9.3 Most probable number (MPN) methods ISO 4831:2006 and ISO 7251:2005 for total // coliforms and presumptive E. coli in foods 97 // 9.3.1 Material required for analysis 97 // 9.3.2 Procedure 97 // 9.4 Most probable number (MPN) method APHA/AWWA/WEF 2005 for total // and thermotolerant coliforms and E. coli in water 99 // 9.4.1 Material required for analysis 99 // 9.4.2 Procedure 101 // 9.5 Plate count method APHA 2001 for total coliforms in foods 102 // 9.5.1 Material required for analysis 102 // 9.5.2 Procedure 102 // 9.6 References 103 // 10 Staphylococcus aureus 105 // 10.1 Introduction 105 // 10.1.1 Taxonomy 105 // 10.1.1.1 The genus Staphylococcus 105 // 10.1.1.2 The coagulase positive staphylococci 105
// 10.1.1.3 Staphylococcus aureus 106 // 10.1.2 Pathogenicity 107 // 10.1.2.1 Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins 107 // 10.1.2.2 Staphylococcal food poisoning 108 // 10.1.3 Methods of analysis 108 // 10.2 Plate count method APHA 2001 for coagulase positive staphylococci and S. aureus in foods 109 // 10.2.1 Material required for analysis 110 // 10.2.2 Procedure 110 // X Table of contents // 10.3 Most probable number (MPN) method APHA 2001 for coagulase positive staphylococci // and S. aureus in foods 113 // 10.3.1 Material required for analysis 113 // 10.3.2 Procedure 113 // 10.4 Presence/absence method APHA 2001 for coagulase positive staphylococci // and S. aureus in foods 115 // 10.4.1 Material required for analysis 115 // 10.4.2 Procedure 115 // 10.5. References 115 // 11 Bacillus cereus 119 // 11.1 Introduction 119 // 11.1.1 B. cereus Group 119 // 11.1.2 Main characteristics of B. cereus 120 // 11.1.3 Methods of analysis 121 // 11.2 Plate count method APHA 2001 for Bacillus cereus in foods 121 // 11.2.1 Material required for analysis 122 // 11.2.2 Procedure 122 // 11.3 Most probable number (MPN) method APHA 2001 for Bacillus cereus in foods 126 // 11.3.1 Material required for analysis 126 // 11.3.2 Procedure 126 // 11.4 References 126 // 12 Clostridium perfringens 129 // 12.1 Introduction 129 // 12.1.1 Main characteristics of C. perfringens 129 // 12.1.2 Epidemiology 130 // 12.1.2.1 C. perfringens type A food poisoning 130 // 12.1.2.2 C. perfringens type C necrotic enteritis
130 // 12.1.3 Methods of analysis 130 // 12.2 Plate count method APHA 2001 for Clostridium perfringens in foods 131 // 12.2.1 Material required for analysis 131 // 12.2.2 Procedure 132 // 12.3 Presence/absence method APHA 2001 for Clostridium perfringens in foods 134 // 12.3.1 Material required for analysis 134 // 12.3.2 Procedure 134 // 12.4 References 136 // 13 Enterococci 137 // 13.1 Introduction 137 // 13.1.1 Enterococci 139 // 13.1.1.1 Species of intestinal origin 139 // 13.1.1.2 Species found in plants, soil and water 140 // 13.1.1.3 Species found in foods 140 // 13.1.1.4 Biochemical characteristics of the genus Enterococcus 141 // 13.1.2 Fecal streptococci 141 // 13.1.2.1 Biochemical characteristics of the genus Streptococcus 142 // 13.1.3 Diferentiation of enterococci from fecal streptococci 142 // 13.1.4 Methods of analysis 142 // Table of contents XI // 13.2 Plate count method APHA 2001 for enterococci and fecal streptococci in foods 143 // 13.2.1 Material required for analysis 143 // 13.2.2 Procedure 144 // 13.3 Most probable number (MPN) method APHA 2001 for enterococci and fecal streptococci in foods 143 // 13.3.1 Material required for analysis 145 // 13.3.2 Procedure 145 // 13.4 Membrane filtration method APHA/AWWA/WEF 2005 for enterococci // and fecal streptococci in water 145 // 13.4.1 Material required for analysis 145 // 13.4.2 Procedure 146 // 13.5 Membrane filtration method ISO 7899-2:2000 for intestinal enterococci in water 148 // 13.5.1 Material required
for analysis 148 // 13.5.2 Procedure 148 // 13.6 References 149 // 14 Lactic acid bacteria 151 // 14.1 Introduction 151 // 14.1.1 Carnobacterium Collins et al. \\9%7 151 // 14.1.2 Enterococcus (ex Thiercelin & Jouhaud 1903) Schleifer & Kilpper-Bälz 1984 153 // 14.1.3 Eructo bacillus Endo and Okada 2008 153 // 14.1.4 Lactobacillus ??? 1901 emend. Haakensen et al. 2009 154 // 14.1.5 Lactococcus Schleifer et al. \\9%6 154 // 14.1.6 Leuconostoc van Tieghem 1878 155 // 14.1.7 Oenococcus Dicks et al. 1995 emend. Endo and Okada 2006 155 // 14.1.8 Pediococcus Balcke 1884 156 // 14.1.9 Streptococcus Rosenbach 1884 156 // 14.1.10 Tetragono co ecus Collins et al. 1993 156 // 14.1.11 Weissella Collins et al. 1994 157 // 14.1.12 Methods of analysis 157 // 14.2 Plate count method APHA 2001 for lactic acid bacteria in foods 160 // 14.2.1 Material required for analysis 160 // 14.2.2 Procedure 160 // 14.3 Most probable number (MPN) methods APHA 2001 for lactic acid bacteria in foods 162 // 14.3.1 Material required for analysis 162 // 14.3.2 Procedure using the MRS broth 162 // 14.3.3 Procedure using the Rogosa SL Broth 162 // 14.4 References 165 // 15 Campylobacter 167 // 15.1 Introduction 167 // 15.1.1 Taxonomy 167 // 15.1.2 Epidemiology 169 // 15.2 Presence/absence method ISO 10272-1:2006 for thermotolerant Campylobacter in foods 169 // 15.2.1 Material required for analysis 170 // 15.2.2 Procedure 170 // 15.3 References 173 // 16 Cronobacter 175 // 16.1 Introduction 175 // 16.1.1 Taxonomy 175
// XII Table of contents // 16.1.1.1 Cronobacter Iversen et al. 2008, gen. nov. 175 // 16.1.2 Epidemiology 175 // 16.1.3 Codex Alimentarius microbiological criteria for Cronobacter spp. in powdered infant formulae 176 // 16.2 Presence/absence method ISO 22964:2006 for Cronobacter [Enterobacter sakazakii] in milk // powder and powdered infant formula 177 // 16.2.1 Material required for analysis 177 // 16.2.2 Procedure 178 // 16.3 References 180 // 17 Pseudomonas 181 // 17.1 Introduction 181 // 17.1.1 Taxonomy 181 // 17.1.1.1 Pseudomonas Migula 1894 181 // 17.1.1.2 Shewanella MacDonell & Colwell 1986 184 // 17.1.1.3 Janth ino bacterium De Ley et al. 1978 emend. Lincoln et al. 1999 185 // 17.1.1.4 Steno trop h omonas Palleroni & Bradbury 1993 186 // 17.2 Most probable number (MPN) method APHA/AWWA/WEF 2005 // for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water 186 // 17.2.1 Material required for analysis 186 // 17.2.2 Procedure 187 // 17.3 Membrane filtration method ISO 16266:2006 for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water 188 // 17.3.1 Material required for analysis 188 // 17.3.2 Procedure 188 // 17.4 Plate count method ISO 13720:2010 for presumptive Pseudomonas spp. in meat and meat products 190 // 17.4.1 Material required for analysis 191 // 17.4.2 Procedure 191 // 17.5 Plate count method ISO 11059:2009 IDF/RM 225:2009 for Pseudomonas spp. // in milk and milk products 193 // 17.5.1 Material required for analysis 194 // 17.5.2 Procedure 194 // 17.6 References 196 // 18 Listeria monocytogenes 197 // 18.1
Introduction 197 // 18.1.1 Taxonomy 197 // 18.1.2 Epidemiology 198 // 18.1.3 Methods of analysis 199 // 18.2 Presence/absence method BAM/FDA 2011 for Listeria monocytogenes in foods 200 // 18.2.1 Material required for analysis 200 // 18.2.2 Procedure 200 // 18.3 Presence/absence method MLG/FSIS/USDA 2009 for Listeria monocytogenes in foods 204 // 18.3.1 Material required for analysis 204 // 18.3.2 Procedure 206 // 18.4 Plate count method ISO 11290-2:1998 Amendment 1:2004 for Listeria monocytogenes in foods 207 // 18.4.1 Material required for analysis 207 // 18.4.2 Procedure 209 // 18.5 Presence/absence method ISO 11290-1:1996 Amendment 1:2004 for Listeria monocytogenes in foods 212 // 18.5.1 Material required for analysis 212 // 18.5.2 Procedure 212 // 18.6 References 214 // Table of contents XIII // 19 Salmonella 217 // 19.1 Introduction 217 // 19.1.1 Taxonomic classification of Salmonella 217 // 19.1.2 Serological classification of Salmonella 219 // 19.1.3 Biochemical characteristics of Salmonella 221 // 19.1.4 Epidemiology 221 // 19.1.5 Traditional methods used for the examination of Salmonella 223 // 19.1.6 Alternative methods for the analysis of Salmonella 225 // 19.1.7 Composite samples for analysis 225 // 19.2 Presence/absence method ISO 6579:2002 Amendment 1:2007 for Salmonella in foods 227 // 19.2.1 Material required for analysis 227 // 19.2.2 Procedure 227 // 19.3 Presence/absence method BAM/FDA 2011 for in foods 232 // 19.3.1 Material required for analysis 232 // 19.3.2
Procedure 232 // 19.4 Presence/absence method MLG/FSIS/USDA 2011 iov Salmonella in fooŕs 242 // 19.4.1 Material required for analysis 242 // 19.4.2 Procedure 242 // 19.5 References 247 // 20 Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus 249 // 20.1 Introduction 249 // 20.1.1 Taxonomy 249 // 20.1.2 Epidemiology 253 // 20.1.2.1 V. cholerae 254 // 20.1.2.2 V. parahaemolyticus 254 // 20.1.2.3 V. vulnificus 254 // 20.1.3 Methods of analysis 255 // 20.2 Presence/absence method APHA 2001 and BAM/FDA 2004 for Vibrio cholerae in foods 255 // 20.2.1 Material required for analysis 256 // 20.2.2 Procedure 256 // 20.3 Most probable number (MPN) method APHA 2001 and BAM/FDA 2004 // for Vibrio parahaemolyticus in foods 258 // 20.3.1 Material required for analysis 258 // 20.3.2 Procedure 259 // 20.4 Presence/absence method ISO 21872-1:2007 for presumptive enteropathogenic // Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in foods 261 // 20.4.1 Material required for analysis 261 // 20.4.2 Procedure 261 // 20.5 References 265 // 21 Yersinia enterocolitica 267 // 21.1 Introduction 267 // 21.1.1 Taxonomy 267 // 21.1.2 Epidemiology 270 // 21.2 Presence/absence method ISO 10273:2003 for presumptive pathogenic // Yersinia enterocolitica in foods 270 // 21.2.1 Material required for analysis 271 // 21.2.2 Procedure 271 // References 275 // 21.3 // XIV Table of contents // 22 Bacterial spore count // 22.1 Introduction // 22.1.1 The bacterial spore // 22.1.1.1 Sequence of spore formation // 22.1.1.2 Spore ultrastructure
// 22.1.1.3 Mechanisms of spore resistance // 22.1.2 Taxonomy of sporeforming bacteria important in foods // 22.1.2.1 Aeribacillus Mifiana-Galbis et al. 2010 // 22.1.2.2 Alicyclobacillus Wisotzkey et al. 1992 emend. Goto et al. 2003 emend. Karavaiko et al. 2005 // 22.1.2.3 Aneurinibacillus Shida et al. 1996 emend. Heyndrickx et al. 1997 // 22.1.2.4 Anoxybacillus Pikuta et al. 2000 emend. Pikuta et al. 2003 // 22.1.2.5 Bacillus Cohn 1872 // 22.1.2.6 Brevibacillus Shida et al. 1996 // 22.1.2.7 Clostridium Prazmowski 1880 // 22.1.2.8 Cohnella Kämpfer et al. 2006 // 22.1.2.9 Desulfotomaculum Campbell and Postgate 1965 // 22.1.2.10 Geobacillus Nazina et al. 2001 // 22.1.2.11 Jeotgalibacillus Yoon et al. 2001 emend. Chen et al. 2010 // 22.1.2.12 Lentibacillus Yoon et al. 2002 emend. Jeon et al. 2005 // 22.1.2.13 Lysinibacillus Ahmed et al. 2007 // 22.1.2.14 Moorella CoWins et al. 1994 // 22.1.2.15 Oceanobacillus Lu et al. 2002 emend. Lee et al. 2006 // 22.1.2.16 Paenibacillus Ash et al. 1994 emend. Shida el al. 1997 // 22.1.2.17 Sporolactobacillus Kitahara and Suzuki 1963 // 22.1.2.18 Thermoanaerobacter Wiegel and Ljungdahl 1982 emend. Lee et al. 2007 // 22.1.2.19 Thermoanaerobaclerium Lee et al. 1993 // 22.1.2.20 Virgibacillus Heyndrickx et al. 1998 emend. Waino et al. 1999 emend. Heyrman et al. 2003 // 22.2 Methods APHA 2001 for spores of total and “flat sour” thermophilic aerobic sporeformers in foods // 22.2.1 Material required for analysis // 22.2.2 Procedure for the analysis
of sugar // 22.2.3 Procedure for the analysis of starch // 22.2.4 Procedure for the analysis of whole tomatoes, tomato pulp, tomato puree and concentrated milk // 22.2.5 Procedure for the analysis of nonfat dry milk // 22.2.6 Procedure for the analysis of milk cream // 22.2.7 Procedure for the analysis of other foods and ingredients (general) // 22.3 Methods APHA 2001 for spores of thermophilic anaerobic sporeformers in foods // 22.3.1 Material required for analysis // 22.3.2 Procedure for the analysis of sugar and powdered milk // 22.3.3 Procedure for the analysis of starches and flours // 22.3.4 Procedure for the analysis of cereals and alimentary pastes // 22.3.5 Procedure for the analysis of fresh mushrooms // 22.3.6 Procedure for the analysis of “in-process” products // 22.4 Methods APHA 2001 for spores of sulfide spoilage anaerobic sporeformers in foods // 22.4.1 Material required for analysis // 22.4.2 Procedure for the analysis of sugar // 22.4.3 Procedure for the analysis of starch and flour // 277 // 277 // 277 // 277 // 277 // 278 278 // 278 // 279 281 281 282 // 283 // 284 287 287 // 287 // 288 288 289 289 // 289 // 290 290 // 290 // 291 // 291 // 292 292 // 292 // 293 // 293 // 294 294 294 296 296 // 296 // 297 297 297 // 297 // 298 298 298 298 // Table of contents XV // 22.4.4 Procedure for the analysis of skim milk powder 299 // 22.4.5 Procedure for the analysis of soy protein isolates 299 // 22.5 Methods APHA 2001 for spores of mesophilic aerobic sporeformers
in foods 299 // 22.5.1 Material required for analysis 299 // 22.5.2 Procedure for foods in general 300 // 22.5.3 Procedure for the analysis of milk and dairy products 300 // 22.5.4 Procedure for the analysis of water 302 // 22.6 Methods APHA 2001 for spores of mesophilic anaerobic sporeformers in foods 302 // 22.6.1 Material required for analysis 302 // 22.6.2 Procedure for the analysis of sugar 302 // 22.6.3 Procedure for the analysis of starch, flours and other cereal products 303 // 22.6.4 Procedure for the analysis of dehydrated vegetables 303 // 22.6.5 Procedure for the analysis of seasonings and spices 303 // 22.6.6 Procedure for the analysis of egg powder, milk powder and other // powdered dairy products 303 // 22.6.7 Procedure for the analysis of fluid milk and cheeses 304 // 22.6.8 Other procedures for mesophilic anaerobic sporeformers 304 // 22.7 Methods IFU 12:2007 tor Alicyclobacillus in foods 304 // 22.7.1 Material required for analysis 305 // 22.7.2 Procedure for the analysis of raw material 305 // 22.7.3 Procedure for analysis of the finished product 306 // 22.7.4 Interpretation and calculation of the results 307 // 22.8 References 307 // 23 Commercial sterility 311 // 23.1 Introduction 311 // 23.1.1 Parameters for evaluating the heat resistance of microorganisms 312 // 23.1.1.1 Survival curve and decimal reduction time (D value) 312 // 23.1.1.2 Number of decimal reductions 312 // 23.1.1.3 Thermal destruction curve and temperature coefficient (z value) 312 // 23.1.2
D and z values of microorganisms of importance in foods 313 // 23.1.3 Dimensioning heat treatments and thermal processing 316 // 23.1.4 Microbial spoilage of canned foods 317 // 23.2 Method APHA 2001 for commercial sterility or cause of spoilage of low acid canned foods 318 // 23.2.1 Material required for analysis 319 // 23.2.2 Procedure 319 // 23.2.3 Interpretation of the results 323 // 23.3 Method APHA 2001 for commercial sterility or cause of spoilage of acid canned foods 326 // 23.3.1 Material required for analysis 326 // 23.3.2 Procedure 327 // 23.3.3 Interpretation of the results 330 // 23.4 References 332 // 24 Guidelines on preparation of culture media 335 // 24.1 Introduction 335 // 24.1.1 Ingredients used in the formulation of culture media 335 // 24.1.1.1 Water for preparing media and reagents 335 // 24.1.1.2 Nutrient sources for culture media 335 // 24.1.1.3 Selective agents 338 // 24.1.1.4 Differential agents 338 // XVI Table of contents // 24.1.1.5 Reducing agents 338 // 24.1.1.6 Buffering agents 339 // 24.1.1.7 Chromogenic and fluorogenic substrates 339 // 24.1.1.8 Agar 340 // 24.1.2 Types of culture media 340 // 24.2 Procedure for the preparation of culture media 341 // 24.2.1 Storing supplies and ingredients for preparation of culture media 341 // 24.2.2 Weighing and rehydration 341 // 24.2.3 Dissolution and dispersion 341 // 24.2.4 Verification and adjustment of the pH before sterilization 342 // 24.2.5 Distribution 342 // 24.2.6 Sterilization by moist heat 342
// 24.2.7 Sterilization by filtration 343 // 24.2.8 Verification after sterilization 344 // 24.2.9 Preparation of supplements for culture media 344 // 24.2.10 Storage of sterilized media until the moment of use 344 // 24.2.11 Preparation of the media at the moment of use 344 // 24.3 References 345 // Annex 1 — Preparation of media and reagents 347 // Annex 2 - Sampling plans and microbiological limits recommended by ICMSF for foods 437 // Subject index 445

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