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Bibliografická citace

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0 (hodnocen0 x )
BK
Seventh edition, global edition
Harlow : Pearson, [2016]]
862 stran, 83 různě číslovaných stran : barevné ilustrace, portréty ; 28 cm

objednat
ISBN 978-1-292-09493-9 (brožováno)
Always learning
Obsahuje rejstřík
Terminologický slovník
001459683
CONTENTS // f // ?? Basic Celi Processes: Integration and Coordination // CHAPTER 1 ¦ ???—?? // Introduction to Physiology 25 // Physiology Is an Integrative Science 26 // RUNNING PROBLEM What to Believe? 26 // EMERGING CONCEPTS The Changing World of Omics 27 // Function and Mechanism 28 Themes in Physiology 29 FOCUS ON ... Mapping 30 // Theme 1: Structure and Function Are Closely Related 32 Theme 2: Living Organisms Need Energy 33 Theme 3: Information Flow Coordinates Body Functions 33 Theme 4: Homeostasis Maintains Internal Stability 33 // Homeostasis 33 // What Is the Body’s Internal Environment? 34 Homeostasis Depends on Mass Balance 34 Excretion Clears Substances from the Body 36 Homeostasis Does Not Mean Equilibrium 37 Control Systems and Homeostasis 37 Local Control Is Restricted to a Tissue 37 Reflex Control Uses Long-Distance Signaling 38 Response Loops Begin with a Stimulus 38 Feedback Loops Modulate the Response Loop 39 Negative Feedback Loops Are Homeostatic 39 Positive Feedback Loops Are Not Homeostatic 40 Feedforward Control Allows the Body to Anticipate Change 41 Biological Rhythms Result from Changes in a Setpoint 41 The Science of Physiology 42 // Good Scientific Experiments Must Be Carefully Designed 42 FOCUS ON ... Graphs 44 // The Results of Human Experiments Can Be Difficult to Interpret 46 Human Studies Can Take Many Forms 47 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 49 REVIEW QUESTIONS 50 // CHAPTER 2 ’V ??? // Molecular Interactions 52 // RUNNING PROBLEM Chromium Supplements
53 // Molecules and Bonds 53 // Most Biomolecules Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen 53 // Electrons Have Four Important Biological Roles 57 Covalent Bonds between Atoms Create Molecules 57 Noncovalent Bonds Facilitate Reversible Interactions 63 // Noncovalent Interactions 64 // Hydrophilic Interactions Create Biological Solutions 64 Molecular Shape Is Related to Molecular Function 64 Hydrogen Ions in Solution Can Alter Molecular Shape 65 // Protein Interactions 70 // Proteins Are Selective about the Molecules They Bind 70 Protein-Binding Reactions Are Reversible 71 Binding Reactions Obey the Law of Mass Action 71 The Dissociation Constant Indicates Affinity 72 Multiple Factors Alter Protein Binding 72 The Body Regulates the Amount of Protein in Cells 75 Reaction Rate Can Reach a Maximum 75 Chemistry Review Quiz 78 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 79 REVIEW QUESTIONS 80 // CHAPTER 3 // Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues 82 // RUNNING PROBLEM Pap Tests Save Lives 83 Functional Compartments of the Body 83 // The Lumens of Some Organs Are Outside the Body 83 Functionally, the Body Has Three Fluid Compartments 85 Biological Membranes 85 // The Cell Membrane Separates Cell from Environment 85 Membranes Are Mostly Lipid and Protein 86 Membrane Lipids Create a Hydrophobic Barrier 86 // Membrane Proteins May Be Loosely or Tightly Bound to the Membrane 86 // BIOTECHNOLOGY Liposomes for Beauty and Health 88 // Membrane Carbohydrates Attach to Both Lipids and Proteins 88 // Intracellular Compartments
89 // Cells Are Divided into Compartments 89 // The Cytoplasm Includes Cytosol, Inclusions, Fibers, and Organelles 89 // Inclusions Are in Direct Contact with the Cytosol 89 Cytoplasmic Protein Fibers Come in Three Sizes 92 Microtubules Form Centrioles, Cilia, and Flagella 92 // 9 // 10 // CONTENTS // The Cytoskeleton Is a Changeable Scaffold 92 EMERGING CONCEPTS Single Cilia Are Sensors 93 Motor Proteins Create Movement 93 // Organelles Create Compartments for Specialized Functions 94 // The Nucleus Is the Cell’s Control Center 96 Tissues of the Body 96 // Extracellular Matrix Has Many Functions 96 Cell Junctions Hold Cells Together to Form Tissues 96 Epithelia Provide Protection and Regulate Exchange 100 Connective Tissues Provide Support and Barriers 104 BIOTECHNOLOGY Grow Your Own Cartilage 106 Muscle and Neural Tissues Are Excitable 108 Tissue Remodeling 108 // Apoptosis Is a Tidy Form of Cell Death 108 Stem Cells Can Create New Specialized Cells 109 FOCUS ON ... The Skin 110 Organs 111 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 112 REVIEW QUESTIONS 114 // CHAPTER 4 ??? // Energy and Cellular Metabolism 116 // RUNNING PROBLEM Tay-Sachs Disease: A Deadly Inheritance 117 // Energy in Biological Systems 117 // Energy Is Used to Perform Work 118 Energy Comes in Two Forms: Kinetic and Potential 118 Energy Can Be Converted from One Form to Another 119 Thermodynamics Is the Study of Energy Use 119 // Chemical Reactions 120 // Energy Is Transferred between Molecules during Reactions 120 Activation Energy
Gets Reactions Started 120 Energy Is Trapped or Released during Reactions 120 Net Free Energy Change Determines Reaction Reversibility 122 Enzymes 122 // Enzymes Are Proteins 123 Reaction Rates Are Variable 123 BIOTECHNOLOGY Seeing Isozymes 124 Enzymes May Be Activated, Inactivated, or Modulated 124 Enzymes Lower Activation Energy of Reactions 124 Enzymatic Reactions Can Be Categorized 125 Metabolism 126 // Cells Regulate Their Metabolic Pathways 127 ATP Transfers Energy between Reactions 128 Catabolic Pathways Produce ATP 129 One Glucose Molecule Can Yield 30-32 ATP 129 // Anaerobic Metabolism Makes 2 ATP 134 Proteins Are the Key to Cell Function 135 DNA Guides the Synthesis of RNA 136 // Alternative Splicing Creates Multiple Proteins from One DNA Sequence 138 // mRNA Translation Links Amino Acids 139 EMERGING CONCEPTS Purple Petunias and RNAi 140 Protein Sorting Directs Proteins to Their Destination 140 Proteins Undergo Posttranslational Modification 140 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 143 REVIEW QUESTIONS 144 // CHAPTER 5 :««¦¦¦¦ // Membrane Dynamics 146 // Homeostasis Does Not Mean Equilibrium 147 RUNNING PROBLEM Cystic Fibrosis 147 Osmosis and Tonicity 149 // The Body Is Mostly Water 149 The Body Is in Osmotic Equilibrium 149 Osmolarity Describes the Number of Particles in Solution 150 Tonicity Describes the Volume Change of a Cell 151 Transport Processes 156 // Cell Membranes Are Selectively Permeable 156 Diffusion 158 // Lipophilic Molecules Cross Membranes by Simple Diffusion
160 // Protein-Mediated Transport 161 // Membrane Proteins Have Four Major Functions 161 // Channel Proteins Form Open, Water-Filled Passageways 163 // Carrier Proteins Change Conformation to Move Molecules 164 // Facilitated Diffusion Uses Carrier Proteins 166 // Active Transport Moves Substances against Their Concentration Gradients 167 // Carrier-Mediated Transport Exhibits Specificity, Competition, and Saturation 169 // Vesicular Transport 171 // Phagocytosis Creates Vesicles Using the Cytoskeleton 171 // Endocytosis Creates Smaller Vesicles 172 // Exocytosis Releases Molecules Too Large for Transport Proteins 172 // CLINICAL FOCUS LDL: The Lethal Lipoprotein 172 // Epithelial Transport 174 // Epithelial Transport May Be Paracellular or Transcellular 174 // Transcellular Transport of Glucose Uses Membrane Proteins 175 // Transcytosis Uses Vesicles to Cross an Epithelium 176 // The Resting Membrane Potential 177 // Electricity Review 177 // CONTENTS 11 // The Cell Membrane Enables Separation of Electrical Charge in the Body 177 // All Living Cells Have a Membrane Potential 180 // The Resting Membrane Potential Is Due Mostly to Potassium 181 // Changes in Ion Permeability Change the Membrane Potential 182 // Integrated Membrane Processes: Insulin Secretion 183 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 185 REVIEW QUESTIONS 186 // // Communication, Integration, and Homeostasis 189 // Cell-To-Cell Communication 190 // RUNNING PROBLEM Diabetes Mellitus: A Growing Epidemic 190 Gap Junctions Create Cytoplasmic
Bridges 190 Contact-Dependent Signals Require Cell-to-Cell Contact 190 Local Communication Uses Paracrine and Autocrine Signals 192 Long-Distance Communication May Be Electrical or Chemical 192 Cytokines May Act as Both Local and Long-Distance Signals 192 Signal Pathways 193 // Receptor Proteins Are Located Inside the Cell or on the Cell Membrane 193 // Membrane Proteins Facilitate Signal Transduction 195 // The Most Rapid Signal Pathways Change Ion Flow through Channels 196 // Most Signal Transduction Uses G Proteins 198 // Many Lipophobic Hormones Use GPCR-cAMP Pathways 198 // G Protein-Coupled Receptors Also Use Lipid-Derived Second Messengers 198 // Receptor-Enzymes Have Protein Kinase or Guanylyl Cyclase Activity 200 // Integrin Receptors Transfer Information from the Extracellular Matrix 200 // Novel Signal Molecules 200 // Calcium Is an Important Intracellular Signal 201 Gases Are Ephemeral Signal Molecules 202 CLINICAL FOCUS From Dynamite to Medicine 202 Some Lipids Are Important Paracrine Signals 203 BIOTECHNOLOGY Calcium Signals Glow in the Dark 203 Modulation of Signal Pathways 204 // Receptors Exhibit Saturation, Specificity, and Competition 204 One Ligand May Have Multiple Receptors 204 // Up- and Down-Regulation Enable Cells to Modulate Responses 205 // Cells Must Be Able to Terminate Signal Pathways 206 // Many Diseases and Drugs Target the Proteins of Signal Transduction 206 // Homeostatic Reflex Pathways 206 // Cannon’s Postulates Describe Regulated Variables
and Control Systems 206 // Long-Distance Pathways Maintain Homeostasis 207 Control Systems Vary in Their Speed and Specificity 211 // Complex Reflex Control Pathways Have Several Integrating Centers 213 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 217 REVIEW QUESTIONS 218 // I Homeostasis and Control // CHAPTER 7 ¦ ? // Introduction to the Endocrine System 220 // Hormones 221 // RUNNING PROBLEM Graves’ Disease 221 // Hormones Have Been Known Since Ancient Times 221 What Makes a Chemical a Hormone? 222 CLINICAL FOCUS Diabetes: The Discovery of Insulin 222 Hormones Act by Binding to Receptors 223 Hormone Action Must Be Terminated 223 The Classification of Hormones 225 // Most Hormones Are Peptides or Proteins 225 Steroid Hormones Are Derived from Cholesterol 228 Some Hormones Are Derived from Single Amino Acids 230 Control of Hormone Release 230 // The Endocrine Cell Is the Sensor in Simple Endocrine Reflexes 230 // Many Endocrine Reflexes Involve the Nervous System 231 Neurohormones Are Secreted into the Blood by Neurons 231 The Pituitary Gland Is Actually Two Fused Glands 233 // The Posterior Pituitary Stores and Releases Two Neurohormones 233 // The Anterior Pituitary Secretes Six Hormones 233 // A Portal System Connects the Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary 235 // Anterior Pituitary Hormones Control Growth, Metabolism, and Reproduction 237 // Feedback Loops Are Different in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Pathway 237 // Hormone Interactions 239 // In Synergism, the Effect of Interacting Hormones Is More
than Additive 239 // A Permissive Hormone Allows Another Hormone to Exert Its Full Effect 240 // 12 CONTENTS // Antagonistic Hormones Have Opposing Effects 240 Endocrine Pathologies 240 // Hypersecretion Exaggerates a Hormone’s Effects 240 Hyposecretion Diminishes or Eliminates a Hormone’s Effects 241 // Receptor or Second Messenger Problems Cause Abnormal Tissue Responsiveness 241 // Diagnosis of Endocrine Pathologies Depends on the Complexity of the Reflex 242 // Hormone Evolution 242 // FOCUS ON ... The Pineal Gland 245 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 247 REVIEW QUESTIONS 248 // Neurons: Cellular and Network Properties 250 // RUNNING PROBLEM Mysterious Paralysis 251 Organization of the Nervous System 251 Cells of the Nervous System 253 // Neurons Carry Electrical Signals 253 Establishing Synapses Depends on Chemical Signals 256 Glial Cells Provide Support for Neurons 257 Can Stem Cells Repair Damaged Neurons? 259 Electrical Signals in Neurons 260 // The Nernst Equation Predicts Membrane Potential for a Single Ion 260 // The GHK Equation Predicts Membrane Potential Using Multiple Ions 261 // Ion Movement Creates Electrical Signals 262 // Gated Channels Control the Ion Permeability of the Neuron 262 // Current Flow Obeys Ohm’s Law 263 // CLINICAL FOCUS Mutant Channels 263 // Graded Potentials Reflect Stimulus Strength 264 // Action Potentials Travel Long Distances 266 // Na+ and K+ Move across the Membrane during Action Potentials 267 // One Action Potential Does Not Alter Ion Concentration
Gradients 269 // Axonal Na+ Channels Have Two Gates 269 // Action Potentials Will Not Fire during the Absolute Refractory Period 269 // Action Potentials Are Conducted 270 Larger Neurons Conduct Action Potentials Faster 271 Conduction Is Faster in Myelinated Axons 273 Chemical Factors Alter Electrical Activity 275 BIOTECHNOLOGY The Body’s Wiring 275 Cell-to-Cell Communication in The Nervous System 277 Neurons Communicate at Synapses 277 Neurons Secrete Chemical Signals 278 Neurotransmitters Are Highly Varied 278 CLINICAL FOCUS Myasthenia Gravis 280 BIOTECHNOLOGY Of Snakes, Snails, Spiders, and Sushi 281 // Neurotransmitters Are Released from Vesicles 281 Stronger Stimuli Release More Neurotransmitter 284 Integration of Neural Information Transfer 284 // Postsynaptic Responses May Be Slow or Fast 285 Pathways Integrate Information from Multiple Neurons 287 Synaptic Activity Can Be Modified 290 Long-Term Potentiation Alters Synapses 291 // Disorders of Synaptic Transmission Are Responsible for Many Diseases 292 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 293 REVIEW QUESTIONS 295 // The Central Nervous System 298 // Emergent Properties of Neural Networks 299 // RUNNING PROBLEM Infantile Spasms 299 Evolution of Nervous Systems 299 Anatomy of the Central Nervous System 301 // The CNS Develops from a Hollow Tube 301 The CNS Is Divided into Gray Matter and White Matter 301 Bone and Connective Tissue Support the CNS 304 The Brain Floats in Cerebrospinal Fluid 304 The Blood-Brain Barrier Protects the Brain 306
CLINICAL FOCUS Diabetes: Hypoglycemia and the Brain 307 Neural Tissue Has Special Metabolic Requirements 307 The Spinal Cord 308 The Brain 309 // The Brain Stem Is the Oldest Part of the Brain 309 The Cerebellum Coordinates Movement 312 The Diencephalon Contains the Centers for Homeostasis 312 The Cerebrum Is the Site of Higher Brain Functions 313 // Brain Function 314 // The Cerebral Cortex Is Organized into Functional Areas 315 The Spinal Cord and Brain Integrate Sensory Information 315 Sensory Information Is Processed into Perception 318 The Motor System Governs Output from the CNS 318 The Behavioral State System Modulates Motor Output 318 Why Do We Sleep? 320 // Physiological Functions Exhibit Circadian Rhythms 321 Emotion and Motivation Involve Complex Neural Pathways 322 Moods Are Long-Lasting Emotional States 323 Learning and Memory Change Synaptic Connections in the Brain 3 Learning Is the Acquisition of Knowledge 324 Memory Is the Ability to Retain and Recall Information 324 Language Is the Most Elaborate Cognitive Behavior 326 Personality Is a Combination of Experience and Inheritance 328 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 329 REVIEW QUESTIONS 331 // CONTENTS 13 // CHAPTER IO - ‘’¦4??? // Sensory Physiology 333 // RUNNING PROBLEM Méničre’s Disease 334 General Properties of Sensory Systems 334 // Receptors Are Sensitive to Particular Forms of Energy 335 // Sensory Transduction Converts Stimuli into Graded Potentials 336 // A Sensory Neuron Has a Receptive Field 336 The CNS Integrates
Sensory Information 337 Coding and Processing Distinguish Stimulus Properties 338 // Somatic Senses 341 // Pathways for Somatic Perception Project to the Cortex and Cerebellum 341 // Touch Receptors Respond to Many Different Stimuli 343 Temperature Receptors Are Free Nerve Endings 344 Nociceptors Initiate Protective Responses 344 CLINICAL FOCUS Natural Painkillers 348 Chemoreception: Smell and Taste 348 Olfaction Is One of the Oldest Senses 348 Taste Is a Combination of Five Basic Sensations 349 Taste Transduction Uses Receptors and Channels 351 The Ear: Hearing 353 // Flearing Is Our Perception of Sound 353 Sound Transduction Is a Multistep Process 355 The Cochlea Is Filled with Fluid 355 Sounds Are Processed First in the Cochlea 359 Auditory Pathways Project to the Auditory Cortex 359 // Hearing Loss May Result from Mechanical or Neural Damage 359 // BIOTECHNOLOGY Artificial Ears 361 // The Ear: Equilibrium 361 // The Vestibular Apparatus Provides Information about Movement and Position 361 // The Semicircular Canals Sense Rotational Acceleration 361 // The Otolith Organs Sense Linear Acceleration and Head Position 363 // Equilibrium Pathways Project Primarily to the Cerebellum 363 The Eye and Vision 364 // The Skull Protects the Eye 364 // CLINICAL FOCUS Glaucoma 364 // Light Enters the Eye through the Pupil 366 // The Lens Focuses Light on the Retina 367 // Phototransduction Occurs at the Retina 369 // EMERGING CONCEPTS Melanopsin 370 // Photoreceptors Transduce Light into
Electrical Signals 372 // Signal Processing Begins in the Retina 374 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 378 REVIEW QUESTIONS 380 // CHAPTER 11 MH // Efferent Division: Autonomic and Somatic Motor Control 382 // RUNNING PROBLEM A Powerful Addiction 383 The Autonomic Division 383 // Autonomic Reflexes Are Important for Homeostasis 384 // Antagonistic Control Is a Hallmark of the Autonomic Division 385 // Autonomic Pathways Have Two Efferent Neurons in Series 385 // Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Branches Originate in Different Regions 387 // The Autonomic Nervous System Uses a Variety of Chemical Signals 388 // Autonomic Pathways Control Smooth and Cardiac Muscle and Glands 388 // Autonomic Neurotransmitters Are Synthesized in the Axon 389 Autonomic Receptors Have Multiple Subtypes 390 The Adrenal Medulla Secretes Catecholamines 391 // Autonomic Agonists and Antagonists Are Important Tools in Research and Medicine 391 // Primary Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System Are Relatively Uncommon 393 // CLINICAL FOCUS Diabetes: Autonomic Neuropathy 393 Summary of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Branches 393 // The Somatic Motor Division 395 // A Somatic Motor Pathway Consists of One Neuron 395 // The Neuromuscular Junction Contains Nicotinic Receptors 397 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 398 REVIEW QUESTIONS 399 // // Muscles 401 // RUNNING PROBLEM Periodic Paralysis 402 Skeletal Muscle 403 // Skeletal Muscles Are Composed of Muscle Fibers 403 Myofibrils Are Muscle Fiber Contractile Structures 406 Muscle Contraction
Creates Force 407 // Actin and Myosin Slide Past Each Other during Contraction 409 // Myosin Crossbridges Move Actin Filaments 409 Calcium Signals Initiate Contraction 410 Myosin Heads Step along Actin Filaments 410 BIOTECHNOLOGY Watching Myosin Work 412 Acetylcholine Initiates Excitation-Contraction Coupling 412 // Skeletal Muscle Contraction Requires a Steady Supply of ATP 415 // Fatigue Has Multiple Causes 416 // 14 // CONTENTS // Skeletal Muscle Is Classified by Speed and Fatigue Resistance 417 // Resting Fiber Length Affects Tension 419 // Force of Contraction Increases with Summation 420 // A Motor Unit Is One Motor Neuron and Its Muscle Fibers 420 // Contraction Force Depends on the Types and Numbers of Motor Units 421 // Mechanics of Body Movement 422 // Isotonic Contractions Move Loads; Isometric Contractions Create Force without Movement 422 // Bones and Muscles around Joints Form Levers and Fulerums 424 // Muscle Disorders Flave Multiple Causes 426 // Smooth Muscle 427 // Smooth Muscle Is More Variable Than Skeletal Muscle 428 // Smooth Muscle Lacks Sarcomeres 430 // Myosin Phosphorylation Controls Contraction 430 // MLCP Controls Ca2+ Sensitivity 431 // Calcium Initiates Smooth Muscle Contraction 431 // Some Smooth Muscles Have Unstable Membrane Potentials 434 // Chemical Signals Influence Smooth Muscle Activity 434 // Cardiac Muscle 436 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 437 REVIEW QUESTIONS 438 // Integration of Function // CHAPTER 14 // Cardiovascular Physiology 459 // RUNNING
PROBLEM Myocardial Infarction 460 Overview of the Cardiovascular System 460 // The Cardiovascular System Transports Materials throughout the Body 461 // The Cardiovascular System Consists of the Heart, Blood Vessels, and Blood 461 // Pressure, Volume, Flow, and Resistance 463 // The Pressure of Fluid in Motion Decreases over Distance 463 Pressure Changes in Liquids without a Change in Volume 464 Blood Flows from Higher Pressure to Lower Pressure 464 Resistance Opposes Flow 464 // Velocity Depends on the Flow Rate and the Cross-Sectional Area 466 // Cardiac Muscle and the Heart 467 // The Heart Has Four Chambers 467 // Heart Valves Ensure One-Way Flow in the Heart 471 // Cardiac Muscle Cells Contract without Innervation 471 // CHAPTER is  ??? // Integrative Physiology I: Control of Body Movement 441 // Neural Reflexes 442 // Neural Reflex Pathways Can Be Classified in Different Ways 442 RUNNING PROBLEM Tetanus 442 // Autonomic Reflexes 444 Skeletal Muscle Reflexes 444 // Golgi Tendon Organs Respond to Muscle Tension 445 Muscle Spindles Respond to Muscle Stretch 445 CLINICAL FOCUS Reflexes and Muscle Tone 445 // Stretch Reflexes and Reciprocal Inhibition Control Movement around a Joint 448 // Flexion Reflexes Pull Limbs Away from Painful Stimuli 448 The Integrated Control of Body Movement 450 // Movement Can Be Classified as Reflex, Voluntary, or Rhythmic 451 // The CNS Integrates Movement 452 // EMERGING CONCEPTS Visualization Techniques in Sports 454 // Symptoms of Parkinson’s
Disease Reflect Basal Ganglia Function 454 // Control of Movement in Visceral Muscles 455 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 457 REVIEW QUESTIONS 458 // Calcium Entry Is a Feature of Cardiac EC Coupling 473 Cardiac Muscle Contraction Can Be Graded 474 Myocardial Action Potentials Vary 475 The Heart as a Pump 478 // Electrical Signals Coordinate Contraction 478 // Pacemakers Set the Heart Rate 479 // CLINICAL FOCUS Fibrillation 481 // The Electrocardiogram Reflects Electrical Activity 481 // The Heart Contracts and Relaxes during a Cardiac Cycle 485 // CLINICAL FOCUS Gallops, Clicks, and Murmurs 488 // Pressure-Volume Curves Represent One Cardiac Cycle 488 // Stroke Volume Is the Volume of Blood Pumped per Contraction 490 // Cardiac Output Is a Measure of Cardiac Performance 490 The Autonomic Division Modulates Heart Rate 490 Multiple Factors Influence Stroke Volume 492 // Contractility Is Controlled by the Nervous and Endocrine Systems 493 // EDV and Arterial Blood Pressure Determine Afterload 495 // EMERGING CONCEPTS Stem Cells for Heart Disease 495 // CONTENTS 15 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 497 REVIEW QUESTIONS 499 // CHAPTER 15 // Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure 501 // RUNNING PROBLEM Essential Hypertension 502 The Blood Vessels 503 // Blood Vessels Contain Vascular Smooth Muscle 503 Arteries and Arterioles Carry Blood Away from the Heart 504 Exchange Takes Place in the Capillaries 504 Blood Flow Converges in the Venules and Veins 505 Angiogenesis Creates New Blood Vessels 505 Blood Pressure
506 // Blood Pressure Is Highest in Arteries and Lowest in Veins 506 // Arterial Blood Pressure Reflects the Driving Pressure for Blood Flow 507 // Blood Pressure Is Estimated by Sphygmomanometry 508 // Cardiac Output and Peripheral Resistance Determine Mean Arterial Pressure 508 // Changes in Blood Volume Affect Blood Pressure 509 // CLINICAL FOCUS Shock 511 Resistance in the Arterioles 511 // Myogenic Autoregulation Adjusts Blood Flow 512 Paracrine Signals Influence Vascular Smooth Muscle 513 // The Sympathetic Branch Controls Most Vascular Smooth Muscle 514 // Distribution of Blood to the Tissues 516 Regulation of Cardiovascular Function 516 // The Baroreceptor Reflex Controls Blood Pressure 517 // Orthostatic Hypotension Triggers the Baroreceptor Reflex 519 // Other Systems Influence Cardiovascular Function 519 // Exchange at the Capillaries 520 // Velocity of Blood Flow Is Lowest in the Capillaries 521 // Most Capillary Exchange Takes Place by Diffusion and Transcytosis 521 // Capillary Filtration and Absorption Take Place by Bulk Flow 521 // The Lymphatic System 522 // Edema Results from Alterations in Capillary Exchange 524 // Cardiovascular Disease 525 // Risk Factors Include Smoking and Obesity 525 Atherosclerosis Is an Inflammatory Process 526 // CLINICAL FOCUS Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease 526 // EMERGING CONCEPTS Inflammatory Markers for Cardiovascular Disease 528 // Hypertension Represents a Failure of Homeostasis 528 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 530 REVIEW QUESTIONS
531 // CHAPTER 16 %1???1 ?? ? // Blood 535 // RUNNING PROBLEM Blood Doping in Athletes 536 Plasma and the Cellular Elements of Blood 536 // Plasma Is Extracellular Matrix 536 Cellular Elements Include RBCs, WBCs, and Platelets 538 Blood Cell Production 538 // Blood Cells Are Produced in the Bone Marrow 539 Hematopoiesis Is Controlled by Cytokines 540 Colony-Stimulating Factors Regulate Leukopoiesis 540 Thrombopoietin Regulates Platelet Production 541 Erythropoietin Regulates RBC Production 542 Red Blood Cell 542 // Mature RBCs Lack a Nucleus 542 FOCUS ON ... Bone Marrow 543 Hemoglobin Synthesis Requires Iron 544 RBCs Live about Four Months 546 RBC Disorders Decrease Oxygen Transport 546 CLINICAL FOCUS Diabetes: Hemoglobin and Hyperglycemia 546 Platelets 547 // Hemostasis and Coagulation 548 // Hemostasis Prevents Blood Loss from Damaged Vessels 548 Platelet Activation Begins the Clotting Process 550 Coagulation Converts a Platelet Plug into a Clot 550 Anticoagulants Prevent Coagulation 552 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 555 REVIEW QUESTIONS 556 // CHAPTER 17 // Mechanics of Breathing 558 // The Respiratory System 559 // RUNNING PROBLEM Emphysema 559 // Bones and Muscles of the Thorax Surround the Lungs 560 Pleural Sacs Enclose the Lungs 560 Airways Connect Lungs to the External Environment 561 The Airways Warm, Humidify, and Filter Inspired Air 561 Alveoli Are the Site of Gas Exchange 564 Pulmonary Circulation Is High-Flow, Low-Pressure 564 CLINICAL FOCUS Congestive Heart Failure 566 Gas
Laws 566 // Air Is a Mixture of Gases 566 // 18 // CONTENTS // Oxygen Consumption Reflects Energy Use 721 Many Factors Influence Metabolic Rate 722 Energy Is Stored in Fat and Glycogen 722 // Metabolism 723 // Ingested Energy May Be Used or Stored 723 Enzymes Control the Direction of Metabolism 724 Fed-State Metabolism 725 Carbohydrates Make ATP 725 Amino Acids Make Proteins 725 Fats Store Energy 727 // CLINICAL FOCUS Antioxidants Protect the Body 727 Plasma Cholesterol Predicts Fleart Disease 729 Fasted-State Metabolism 729 // Glycogen Converts to Glucose 730 Proteins Can Be Used to Make ATP 730 Lipids Store More Energy than Glucose or Protein 731 Homeostatic Control of Metabolism 732 // The Pancreas Secretes Insulin and Glucagon 732 // The Insulin-to-Glucagon Ratio Regulates Metabolism 733 // Insulin Is the Dominant Flormone of the Fed State 734 // Insulin Promotes Anabolism 735 // Glucagon Is Dominant in the Fasted State 738 // Diabetes Mellitus Is a Family of Diseases 738 // Type 1 Diabetics Are Prone to Ketoacidosis 739 // Type 2 Diabetics Often Have Elevated Insulin Levels 742 // Metabolic Syndrome Links Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease 742 // Multiple Hormones Influence Metabolism 743 // Regulation of Body Temperature 744 // Body Temperature Balances Heat Production, Gain, and Loss 744 // Body Temperature Is Homeostatically Regulated 745 Movement and Metabolism Produce Heat 746 The Body’s Thermostat Can Be Reset 747 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 750 REVIEW QUESTIONS 751 // CHAPTER
23 -?? // Endocrine Control of Growth and Metabolism 753 // Review of Endocrine Principles 754 // RUNNING PROBLEM Hyperparathyroidism 754 BIOTECHNOLOGY Mutant Mouse Models 754 Adrenal Glucocorticoids 755 // The Adrenal Cortex Secretes Steroid Hormones 756 Cortisol Secretion Is Controlled by ACTH 756 Cortisol Is Essential for Life 756 Cortisol Is a Useful Therapeutic Drug 758 // Cortisol Pathologies Result from Too Much or Too Little Hormone 758 CRH and ACTH Have Additional Physiological Functions 759 EMERGING CONCEPTS Melanocortins and the AqouW Mouse 759 Thyroid Hormones 760 // Thyroid Hormones Contain Iodine 760 TSH Controls the Thyroid Gland 762 Thyroid Pathologies Affect Quality of Life 762 Growth Hormone 764 // Growth Hormone Is Anabolic 765 CLINICAL FOCUS New Growth Charts 766 Growth Hormone Is Essential for Normal Growth 766 Genetically Engineered hGH Raises Ethical Questions 766 Tissue and Bone Growth 767 // Tissue Growth Requires Hormones and Paracrine Signals 767 Bone Growth Requires Adequate Dietary Calcium 767 Calcium Balance 769 // Plasma Calcium Is Closely Regulated 770 Three Hormones Control Calcium Balance 770 Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis Are Linked 772 Osteoporosis Is a Disease of Bone Loss 773 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 774 REVIEW QUESTIONS 775 // CHAPTER 24 // // The Immune System 777 // RUNNING PROBLEM HPV: To Vaccinate or Not? 778 // Overview 778 // Pathogens of the Human Body 778 // Bacteria and Viruses Require Different Defense Mechanisms 779 Viruses Can Replicate
Only inside Host Cells 780 // The Immune Response 780 Anatomy of the Immune System 781 // Lymphoid Tissues Are Everywhere 781 // FOCUS ON ... The Spleen 783 // Leukocytes Mediate Immunity 783 Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Responses 786 // Barriers Are the Body’s First Line of Defense 787 Phagocytes Ingest Foreign Material 787 NK Cells Kill Infected and Tumor Cells 787 Cytokines Create the Inflammatory Response 788 Acquired Immunity: Antigen-Specific Responses 789 // Lymphocytes Mediate the Acquired Immune Response 790 ? Lymphocytes Become Plasma Cells and Memory Cells 790 Antibodies Are Proteins Secreted by Plasma Cells 792 Antibodies Work outside Cells 792 FOCUS ON ... The Thymus Gland 794 T Lymphocytes Use Contact-Dependent Signaling 794 // CONTENTS 19 // Immune Response Pathways 796 // Bacterial Invasion Causes Inflammation 796 Viral Infections Require Intracellular Defense 796 Specific Antigens Trigger Allergic Responses 799 MHC Proteins Allow Recognition of Foreign Tissue 800 The Immune System Must Recognize “Self” 802 Immune Surveillance Removes Abnormal Cells 803 BIOTECHNOLOGY Engineered Antibodies 803 Neuro-Endocrine-lmmune Interactions 803 Stress Alters Immune System Function 805 Modern Medicine Includes Mind-Body Therapeutics 805 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 807 REVIEW QUESTIONS 808 // CHAPTER 25 // ?? // Integrative Physiology III: Exercise 810 // RUNNING PROBLEM Malignant Hyperthermia 811 // Metabolism and Exercise 811 // Hormones Regulate Metabolism during Exercise 813
Oxygen Consumption Is Related to Exercise Intensity 813 Several Factors Limit Exercise 813 // Ventilatory Responses to Exercise 814 Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise 815 // Cardiac Output Increases during Exercise 815 Muscle Blood Flow Increases during Exercise 816 Blood Pressure Rises Slightly during Exercise 816 The Baroreceptor Reflex Adjusts to Exercise 817 // Feedforward Responses to Exercise 817 Temperature Regulation during Exercise 818 Exercise and Health 819 // Exercise Lowers the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease 819 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus May Improve with Exercise 819 Stress and the Immune System May Be Influenced by Exercise 819 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 822 REVIEW QUESTIONS 822 // CHAPTER 26 * // Reproduction and Development 824 // RUNNING PROBLEM Infertility 825 Sex Determination 825 // Sex Chromosomes Determine Genetic Sex 825 Sexual Differentiation Occurs Early in Development 826 // CLINICAL FOCUS X-Linked Inherited Disorders 827 Basic Patterns of Reproduction 830 CLINICAL FOCUS Determining Sex 830 Gametogenesis Begins in Utero 831 The Brain Directs Reproduction 831 Environmental Factors Influence Reproduction 834 Male Reproduction 834 // Testes Produce Sperm and Hormones 835 Spermatogenesis Requires Gonadotropins and Testosterone 839 Male Accessory Glands Contribute Secretions to Semen 839 Androgens Influence Secondary Sex Characteristics 839 Female Reproduction 840 // The Ovary Produces Eggs and Hormones 840 A Menstrual Cycle Lasts about One Month 841 Hormonal Control
of the Menstrual Cycle Is Complex 841 Hormones Influence Female Secondary Sex Characteristics 847 Procreation 848 // The Human Sexual Response Has Four Phases 848 The Male Sex Act Includes Erection and Ejaculation 848 Sexual Dysfunction Affects Males and Females 848 Contraceptives Are Designed to Prevent Pregnancy 849 Infertility Is the Inability to Conceive 851 Pregnancy and Parturition 851 // Fertilization Requires Capacitation 851 The Developing Embryo Implants in the Endometrium 851 The Placenta Secretes Hormones during Pregnancy 853 Pregnancy Ends with Labor and Delivery 854 The Mammary Glands Secrete Milk during Lactation 856 Growth and Aging 858 // Puberty Marks the Beginning of the Reproductive Years 858 Menopause and Andropause Are a Consequence of Aging 858 // CHAPTER SUMMARY 859 REVIEW QUESTIONS 861 // APPENDICES // APPENDIX A Answers A-1 APPENDIX ? Physics and Math A-36 APPENDIX C Genetics A-39 // PHOTO CREDITS C-1 GLOSSARY/INDEX GI-1

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