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Bibliografická citace

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BK
Thirteenth edition
Global editon
Boston : Pearson, [2016]
720 stran : ilustrace ; 28 cm

objednat
ISBN 978-1-292-09530-1 (brožováno)
Terminologický slovník
Obsahuje bibliografii na stranách 665-700 a rejstříky
001463077
// Brief Contents // Learning, Teaching, and Educational Psychology 28 // PART I: STUDENTS // Cognitive Development 56 // The Self, Social, and Moral Development 98 //  Learner Differences and Learning Needs 144 // 5) Language Development, Language Diversity, and Immigrant Education 196 // Culture and Diversity 234 // PART II: LEARNING AND MOTIVATION // Y Behavioral Views of Learning 276 Cognitive Views of Learning 314 * ) Complex Cognitive Processes 352 // The Learning Sciences and Constructivism 394 Social Cognitive Views of Learning and Motivation 436 Motivation in Learning and Teaching 468 // 13 // 4 BRIEF CONTENTS // PART III: TEACHING AND ASSESSING // Creating Learning Environments 512 // J /| Teaching Every Student 554 // I Classroom Assessment, Grading, and Standardized Testing 594 // Contents // Learning, Teaching, and Educational Psychology 28 // Teachers’ Casebook—Leaving No Student Behind: // What Would You Do? 28 Overview and Objectives 29 Learning and Teaching Today 30 // Students Today: Dramatic Diversity and Remarkable Technology 30 Confidence in Every Context 31 High Expectations for Teachers and Students 31 Do Teachers Make a Difference? 33 Teacher-Student Relationships 33 The Cost of Poor Teaching 33 What Is Good Teaching? 34 Inside Three Classrooms 34 A Bilingual First Grade 34 A Suburban Fifth Grade 34 An Inclusive Class 35 So What Is Good Teaching 35 Models of Good Teaching 35 Measures of Effective Teaching 38 Beginning Teachers 38 The Role of Educational
Psychology 39 // In the Beginning: Linking Educational Psychology and Teaching 39 Educational Psychology Today 40 Is It Just Common Sense? 40 Helping Students 40 Answer Based on Research 40 Skipping Grades 40 Answer Based on Research 41 Students in Control 41 Answer Based on Research 41 Obvious Answers? 41 // Using Research to Understand and Improve Learning 42 Correlation Studies 42 Experimental Studies 42 Single-Subject Experimental Designs 43 Clinical Interviews and Case Studies 43 Ethnography 43 // The Role of Time in Research 44 Quantitative Versus Qualitative Research 44 Point/Counterpoint: What Kind of Research Should Guide Education? 45 Teachers as Researchers 46 Theories for Teaching 47 Supporting Student Learning 48 // Summary 50 Key Terms 52 // Teachers’ Casebook—Leaving No Student Behind: What Would They Do? 53 // PART I: STUDENTS // Cognitive Development 56 // Teachers’ Casebook—Symbols and Cymbals: What Would You Do? 56 // Overview and Objectives 57 A Definition of Development 58 // Three Questions Across the Theories 58 // What Is the Source of Development? Nature Versus Nurture 58 // What Is the Shape of Development? Continuity Versus Discontinuity 59 // Timing: Is It Too Late? Critical Versus Sensitive Periods 59 Beware of Either/Or 59 General Principles of Development 60 The Brain and Cognitive Development 60 The Developing Brain: Neurons 61 The Developing Brain: Cerebral Cortex 63 Adolescent Development and the Brain 64 Putting It All Together: How the Brain
Works 65 Neuroscience, Learning, and Teaching 65 Point/Counterpoint: Brain-Based Education 66 Instruction and Brain Development 67 The Brain and Learning to Read 68 Emotions, Learning, and the Brain 69 Lessons for Teachers: General Principles 69 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development 70 Influences on Development 71 Basic Tendencies in Thinking 71 Organization 71 Adaptation 72 Equilibration 72 // Four Stages of Cognitive Development 72 Infancy: The Sensorimotor Stage 72 Early Childhood to the Early Elementary Years: // The Preoperational Stage 73 // Guidelines: Family and Community Partnerships—Helping Families Care for Preoperational Children 75 Later Elementary to the Middle School Years: // The Concrete-Operational Stage 75 High School and College: Formal Operations 77 // 15 // 16 CONTENTS // Guidelines: Teaching the Concrete-Operational Child 77 Do We All Reach the Fourth Stage? 79 Information Processing, Neo-Piagetian, and Neuroscience Views of Cognitive Development 79 Guidelines: Helping Students to Use Formal Operations 79 Some Limitations of Piaget’s Theory 80 The Trouble with Stages 80 Underestimating Children’s Abilities 81 Cognitive Development and Culture 82 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective 82 The Social Sources of Individual Thinking 83 Cultural Tools and Cognitive Development 84 Technical Tools in a Digital Age 84 Psychological Tools 85 // The Role of Language and Private Speech 85 // Private Speech: Vygotsky’s and Piaget’s Views Compared 85 The Zone of Proximal
Development 87 Private Speech and the Zone 87 The Role of Learning and Development 87 Limitations of Vygotsky’s Theory 87 Implications of Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s Theories for Teachers 88 // Piaget: What Can We Learn? 88 // Understanding and Building on Students’ Thinking 88 Activity and Constructing Knowledge 89 Vygotsky: What Can We Learn? 89 The Role of Adults and Peers 90 Assisted Learning 90 // An Example Curriculum: Tools of the Mind 90 Reaching Every Student: Teaching in the ’’Magic Middle" 91 Guidelines: Applying Vygotsky’s Ideas in Teaching 92 Cognitive Development: Lessons for Teachers 92 Summary 92 Key Terms 95 // Teachers’ Casebook-Symbols and Cymbals: What Would They Do? 96 // The Self, Social, and Moral Development 98 // Teachers’ Casebook—Mean Girls: What Would You Do? 98 Overview and Objectives 99 Physical Development 100 // Physical and Motor Development 100 Young Children 100 Elementary School Years 100 The Adolescent Years 101 Early and Later Maturing 101 // Guidelines: Dealing with Physical Differences in the Classroom 102 // Play, Recess, and Physical Activity 102 Cultural Differences in Play 102 Exercise and Recess 103 // Physical Activity and Students with Disabilities 103 // Challenges in Physical Development 103 Obesity 103 Eating Disorders 104 // Guidelines: Supporting Positive Body Images in Adolescents 106 // Bronfenbrenner: The Social Context for Development 106 // The Importance of Context and the Bioecological Model 107 Families 107 // Family Structure
107 Parenting Styles 108 Culture and Parenting 109 Attachment 109 // Guidelines: Family and Community Partnerships 110 Divorce 110 // Guidelines: Helping Children of Divorce 111 // Peers 111 Cliques 111 Crowds 111 Peer Cultures 112 Friendships 112 Popularity 112 // Causes and Consequences of Rejection 113 Aggression 114 Relational Aggression 114 Media, Modeling, and Aggression 115 Video Games and Aggressive Behavior 115 Reaching Every Student: Teacher Support 115 Guidelines: Dealing with Aggression and Encouraging Cooperation 116 Academic and Personal Caring 116 Teachers and Child Abuse 117 Society and Media 118 Identity and Self-Concept 119 // Erikson: Stages of Psychosocial Development 119 The Preschool Years: Trust, Autonomy, and Initiative 120 The Elementary and Middle School Years: // Industry Versus Inferiority 121 Adolescence: The Search for Identity 121 Guidelines: Encouraging Initiative and Industry 122 Identity and Technology 123 Guidelines: Supporting Identity Formation 124 Beyond the School Years 124 Racial-Ethnic Identity 125 // Ethnic Identities: Outcome and Process 125 Racial Identity: Outcome and Process 125 Racial and Ethnic Pride 126 Self-Concept 126 // The Structure of Self-Concept 126 How Self-Concept Develops 127 Self-Concept and Achievement 128 Sex Differences in Self-Concept of Academic Competence 128 Self-Esteem 129 // Point/Counterpoint: What Should Schools Do to Encourage Students’ Self-Esteem? 130 // CONTENTS 17 // Understanding Others and Moral Development
131 // Theory of Mind and Intention 131 Moral Development 131 // Kohlberg’s Theories of Moral Development 131 Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory 132 Moral Judgments, Social Conventions, and Personal Choices 133 // Moral Versus Conventional Domains 133 Implications for Teachers 134 Diversity in Moral Reasoning 135 // Beyond Reasoning: Haidts Social Intuitionist Model of Moral Psychology 135 // Moral Behavior and the Example of Cheating 136 Who Cheats? 137 Dealing with Cheating 137 // Personal/Social Development: Lessons for Teachers 138 // Summary 138 // Key Terms 141 // Teachers’ Casebook—Mean Girls: What Would They Do? 142 // Learner Differences and Learning Needs 144 // Teachers’ Casebook-Including Every Student: What Would You Do? 144 // Overview and Objectives 145 // Intelligence 146 // Language and Labels 146 Disabilities and Handicaps 146 Person-First Language 147 Possible Biases in the Application of Labels 147 What Does Intelligence Mean? 148 Intelligence: One Ability or Many? 148 Multiple Intelligences 149 // What Are These Intelligences 149 Critics of Multiple Intelligences Theory 151 Gardner Responds 151 Multiple Intelligences Go to School 151 Multiple Intelligences: Lessons for Teachers 152 Intelligence as a Process 152 Measuring Intelligence 153 Binet’s Dilemma 153 What Does an IQ Score Mean? 154 Group Versus Individual IQ Tests 154 The Flynn Effect: Are We Getting Smarter? 154 Guidelines: Interpreting IQ Scores 155 Intelligence and Achievement 155 Gender Differences
in Intelligence 156 Heredity or Environment? 157 Being Smart About IQ Tests 157 Learning and Thinking Styles 157 Learning Styles/Preferences 158 // Cautions About Learning Styles 158 The Value of Considering Learning Styles 159 Beyond Either/Or 159 // Individual Differences and the Law 160 // IDEA 160 // Least Restrictive Environment 160 Individualized Education Program 161 The Rights of Students and Families 162 Section 504 Protections 162 // Guidelines: Family and Community Partnerships—Productive Conferences 164 // Students with Learning Challenges 165 // Neuroscience and Learning Challenges 165 Students with Learning Disabilities 166 Student Characteristics 166 Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities 168 Students with Hyperactivity and Attention Disorders 168 Definitions 169 // Treating ADHD with Drugs 169 Alternatives/Additions to Drug Treatments 169 Point/Counterpoint: Pills or Skills for Children with ADHD? 170 // Lessons for Teachers: Learning Disabilities and ADHD 171 Students with Communication Disorders 171 Speech Disorders 172 Language Disorders 172 // Students with Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties 173 Suicide 174 // Guidelines: Disciplining Students with Emotional Problems 175 Drug Abuse 175 Prevention 176 // Students with Intellectual Disabilities 177 Guidelines: Teaching Students with Intellectual Disabilities 178 Students with Health and Sensory Impairments 178 Cerebral Palsy and Multiple Disabilities 178 Seizure Disorders (epilepsy) 179 // Other Serious
Health Concerns: Asthma, HIV/AIDS, and Diabetes 179 Students with Vision Impairments 180 Students Who Are Deaf 180 // Autism Spectrum Disorders and Asperger Syndrome 181 Interventions 181 Response to Intervention 182 Students Who Are Gifted and Talented 182 Who Are These Students? 184 // What Is the Origin of These Gifts? 184 What Problems Do Students Who Are Gifted Face? 185 Identifying Students Who Are Gifted and Talented 185 Recognizing Gifts and Talents 185 Teaching Students with Gifts and Talents 187 Acceleration 187 Methods and Strategies 188 Summary 189 Key Terms 192 // Teachers’ Casebook—Including Every Student: What Would They Do? 193 // 18 // CONTENTS // Language Development, Language Diversity, and Immigrant Education 196 // Teachers’ Casebook—Cultures Clash in the Classroom: // What Would You Do? 196 Overview and Objectives 197 The Development of Language 198 // What Develops? Language and Cultural Differences 198 The Puzzle of Language 198 When and How Does Language Develop? 198 Sounds and Pronunciation 198 Vocabulary and Meaning 199 Grammar and Syntax 200 // Pragmatics: Using Language in Social Situations 200 Metalinguistic Awareness 201 Emergent Literacy 201 // Inside-Out and Outside-In Skills 202 Building a Foundation 203 When There Are Persistent Problems 203 Emergent Literacy and Language Diversity 203 Languages and Emergent Literacy 204 Guidelines: Supporting Language and Promoting Literacy 204 // Bilingual Emergent Literacy 205 Diversity in Language Development
205 Dual-Language Development 205 Second-Language Learning 206 Benefits of Bilingualism 206 Language Loss 207 Signed Languages 208 What Is Involved in Being Bilingual? 209 Contextualized and Academic Language 210 Guidelines: Promoting Language Learning 211 Dialect Differences in the Classroom 212 Dialects 212 // Dialects and Pronunciation 212 Dialects and Teaching 213 Genderlects 213 // Teaching Immigrant Students 213 // Immigrantsand Refugees 214 Classrooms Today 215 Four Student Profiles 215 Generation 1.5: Students in Two Worlds 216 Teaching Students Who Are English Language Learners 217 Two Approaches to English Language Learning 218 Research on Bilingual Education 218 Bilingualism for All: Two-Way Immersion 218 Point/Counterpoint: What Is the Best Way to Teach Students Who Are ELLs? 219 Sheltered Instruction 221 // Affective and Emotional/Social Considerations 223 // Guidelines: Providing Emotional Support and Increasing SelfEsteem for Students Who Are ELLs 224 // Working with Families: Using the Tools of the Culture 225 Funds of Knowledge and Welcome Centers 225 Student-Led Conferences 225 Guidelines: Family and Community Partnerships 226 // Special Challenges: Students Who Are English Language Learners with Disabilities and Special Gifts 226 // Students Who Are English Language Learners with Disabilities 227 // Reaching Every Student: Recognizing Giftedness in Bilingual Students 227 // Summary 229 // Key Terms 231 // Teachers’ Casebook—Cultures Clash in the Classroom:
// What Would They Do? 232 // Culture and Diversity 234 // Teachers’ Casebook—White Girls Club: What Would // You Do? 234 // Overview and Objectives 235 // Today’s Diverse Classrooms 236 American Cultural Diversity 236 Meet Four More Students 237 Cautions: Interpreting Cultural Differences 239 Cultural Conflicts and Compatibilities 240 Dangers in Stereotyping 240 // Economic and Social Class Differences 240 Social Class and Socioeconomic Status 241 Extreme Poverty: Homeless and Highly Mobile Students 241 // Poverty and School Achievement 241 Health, Environment, and Stress 244 Low Expectations—Low Academic Self-Concept 244 Peer Influences and Resistance Cultures 244 Home Environment and Resources 245 Summer Setbacks 245 Tracking: Poor Teaching 245 // Point/Counterpoint: Is Tracking an Effective Strategy? 246 Guidelines: Teaching Students Who Live in Poverty 247 // Ethnicity and Race in Teaching and Learning 247 // Terms: Ethnicity and Race 247 Ethnic and Racial Differences in School Achievement 248 The Legacy of Discrimination 250 What Is Prejudice? 251 The Development of Prejudice 251 Continuing Discrimination 252 Stereotype Threat 253 // Who Is Affected by Stereotype Threat? 253 Short-Term Effects: Test Performance 254 // CONTENTS 19 // Long-Term Effects: Disidentification 255 Combating Stereotype Threat 255 // Gender in Teaching and Learning 256 // Sex and Gender 256 Sexual Orientation 256 Gender Roles 258 // Gender Bias in Curriculum Materials 259 // Gender Bias in Teaching
259 // Guidelines: Avoiding Gender Bias in Teaching 260 // Multicultural Education: Creating Culturally Compatible Classrooms 261 // Culturally Relevant Pedagogy 261 Fostering Resilience 263 Resilient Students 263 Resilient Classrooms 263 Self-Agency Strand 264 Relationship Strand 265 // Guidelines: Family and Community Partnerships 265 // Diversity in Learning 266 Social Organization 266 Cultural Values and Learning Preferences 266 Cautions (Again) About Learning Styles Research 267 Sociolinguistics 267 Sources of Misunderstandings 267 Lessons for Teachers: Teaching Every Student 268 Know Your Students 268 Respect Your Students 268 Teach Your Students 268 Guidelines: Culturally Relevant Teaching 269 // Summary 270 // Key Terms 272 // Teachers’ Casebook—White Girls Club: What Would They Do? 273 // PART II: LEARNING AND MOTIVATION // Behavioral Views of Learning 276 // Teachers’ Casebook—Sick of Class: What Would You Do? 276 // Overview and Objectives 276 // Understanding Learning 278 // Neuroscience of Behavioral Learning 278 Learning Is Not Always What It Seems 279 // Early Explanations of Learning: Contiguity and Classical Conditioning 280 // Guidelines: Applying Classical Conditioning 281 // Operant Conditioning: Trying New Responses 282 // Types of Consequences 282 Reinforcement 283 Punishment 284 // Reinforcement Schedules 284 Extinction 286 // Antecedents and Behavior Change 286 Effective Instruction Delivery 287 Cueing 287 Prompting 287 // Putting It All Together to
Apply Operant Conditioning: Applied Behavior Analysis 288 // Methods for Encouraging Behaviors 289 Reinforcing with Teacher Attention 289 Selecting Reinforcers: The Premack Principle 289 Guidelines: Applying Operant Conditioning: // Using Praise Appropriately 290 Shaping 291 // Guidelines: Applying Operant Conditioning: // Encouraging Positive Behaviors 292 Positive Practice 292 // Contingency Contracts, Token Reinforcement, and Group Consequences 292 Contingency Contracts 293 Token Reinforcement Systems 294 Group Consequences 294 Handling Undesirable Behavior 295 Negative Reinforcement 296 Reprimands 296 Response Cost 296 Social Isolation 297 Some Cautions About Punishment 297 Reaching Every Student: Severe Behavior Problems 297 Guidelines: Applying Operant Conditioning: Using Punishment 298 Contemporary Applications: Functional Behavioral Assessment, Positive Behavior Supports, and Self-Management 299 Discovering the “Why": Functional Behavioral Assessments 300 Positive Behavior Supports 301 Self-Management 302 Goal Setting 302 // Monitoring and Evaluating Progress 303 Self-Reinforcement 303 // Guidelines: Family and Community Partnerships—Applying Operant Conditioning: Student Self-Management 304 // Challenges, Cautions, and Criticisms 304 // Beyond Behaviorism: Bandura’s Challenge and Observational Learning 304 // Enactive and Observational Learning 304 Learning and Performance 305 Criticisms of Behavioral Methods 305 Point/Counterpoint: Should Students Be Rewarded for
Learning? 306 Ethical Issues 307 Goals 307 Strategies 307 // Behavioral Approaches: Lessons for Teachers 308 // 20 CONTENTS // Summary 308 Key Terms 310 // Teachers’ Casebook—Sick of Class: What Would They Do? 311 // Cognitive Views of Learning 314 // Teachers’ Casebook—Remembering the Basics: What Would You Do? 314 // Overview and Objectives 315 Elements of the Cognitive Perspective 316 // Comparing Cognitive and Behavioral Views 316 Views of Learning 316 Goals 316 // The Brain and Cognitive Learning 316 The Importance of Knowledge in Cognition 317 General and Specific Knowledge 317 // Cognitive Views of Memory 318 // Sensory Memory 320 // Capacity, Duration, and Contents of Sensory Memory 320 Perception 320 The Role of Attention 321 Attention and Multitasking 321 Attention and Teaching 322 Guidelines: Gaining and Maintaining Attention 323 Working Memory 323 // The Central Executive 324 The Phonological Loop 324 The Visuospatial Sketchpad 325 The Episodic Buffer 325 // The Duration and Contents of Working Memory 326 Cognitive Load and Retaining Information 326 Three Kinds of Cognitive Load 326 Retaining Information in Working Memory 326 Levels of Processing Theory 327 Forgetting 328 // Individual Differences in Working Memory 328 Developmental Differences 328 Individual Differences 329 Long-Term Memory 330 // Capacity, Duration, and Contents of Long-Term Memory 330 // Contents: Declarative, Procedural, and Self-Regulatory Knowledge 330 // Explicit Memories: Semantic and Episodic
332 Propositions and Propositional Networks 332 Images 332 // Two Are Better than One: Words and Images 332 Concepts 333 // Prototypes, Exemplars, and Theory-Based Categories 333 Schemas 334 Episodic Memory 335 // Implicit Memories 335 // Retrieving Information in Long-Term Memory 336 Spreading Activation 337 Reconstruction 337 // Forgetting and Long-Term Memory 337 Individual Differences in Long-Term Memory 337 // Teaching for Deep, Long-Lasting Knowledge: // Basic Principles and Applications 338 // Constructing Declarative Knowledge: Making Meaningful Connections 338 // Elaboration, Organization, Imagery, and Context 338 Guidelines: Family and Community Partnerships—Organizing Learning 339 Imagery 339 // Reaching Every Student: Make it Meaningful 341 Mnemonics 342 Rote Memorization 342 Development of Procedural Knowledge 343 Point/Counterpoint: What’s Wrong with Memorizing? 344 Automated Basic Skills 345 Domain-Specific Strategies 345 Guidelines: Helping Students Understand and Remember 346 Summary 346 Key Terms 348 // Teachers’ Casebook—Remembering the Basics: What Would They Do? 350 // Complex Cognitive Processes 352 // Teachers’ Casebook—Uncritical Thinking: What Would You Do? 352 Overview and Objectives 353 Metacognition 354 // Metacognitive Knowledge and Regulation 354 Individual Differences in Metacognition 355 Lessons for Teachers: Developing Metacognition 355 Metacognitive Development for Younger Students 355 Metacognitive Development for Secondary and College
Students (Like You) 357 Learning Strategies 357 // Being Strategic About Learning 357 Deciding What Is Important 358 Summaries 358 // Underlining and Highlighting 359 Taking Notes 359 Visual Tools for Organizing 360 Reading Strategies 362 Applying Learning Strategies 363 Appropriate Tasks 363 Valuing Learning 363 Effort and Efficacy 363 // CONTENTS 21 // Reaching Every Student: Learning Strategies for Struggling Students 363 Guidelines: Becoming an Expert Student 364 Problem Solving 365 // Identifying: Problem Finding 366 Defining Goals and Representing the Problem 367 Focusing Attention on What Is Relevant 367 Understanding the Words 367 Understanding the Whole Problem 368 Translation and Schema Training: Direct Instruction in Schemas 368 // Translation and Schema Training: // Worked Examples 369 The Results of Problem Representation 370 Searching for Possible Solution Strategies 371 Algorithms 371 Heuristics 371 // Anticipating, Acting, and Looking Back 372 Factors That Hinder Problem Solving 372 Some Problems with Heuristics 373 Guidelines: Applying Problem Solving 374 Expert Knowledge and Problem Solving 374 Knowing What Is Important 374 Memory for Patterns and Organization 375 Procedural Knowledge 375 Planning and Monitoring 375 Creativity: What It Is and Why It Matters 376 Assessing Creativity 376 // OK, But So What: Why Does Creativity Matter? 376 What Are the Sources of Creativity? 377 Creativity and Cognition 378 Creativity and Diversity 378 Creativity in the Classroom
378 The Big C: Revolutionary Innovation 379 Guidelines; Applying and Encouraging Creativity 380 // Critical Thinking and Argumentation 381 // One Model of Critical Thinking: Paul and Elder 381 Applying Critical Thinking in Specific Subjects 382 Argumentation 383 // Point/Counterpoint: Should Schools Teach Critical Thinking and Problem Solving? 384 // Teaching for Transfer 385 // The Many Views of Transfer 385 Teaching for Positive Transfer 386 What Is Worth Learning? 386 How Can Teachers Help? 387 Stages of Transfer for Strategies 387 Guidelines: Family and Community Partnerships—Promoting Transfer 388 Summary 388 Key Terms 390 // Teachers’ Casebook—Uncritical Thinking: What Would They Do? 391 // The Learning Sciences anti Constructivism 394 // Teachers’ Casebook—Learning to Cooperate: What Would You Do? 394 // Overview and Objectives 395 The Learning Sciences 396 // What Are the Learning Sciences? 396 Basic Assumptions of the Learning Sciences 396 Embodied Cognition 397 Cognitive and Social Constructivism 398 Constructivist Views of Learning 399 // Psychological/Individual/Cognitive Constructivism 399 Vygotsky’s Social Constructivism 400 Constructionism 401 How Is Knowledge Constructed? 401 Knowledge: Situated or General? 402 Common Elements of Constructivist Student-Centered Teaching 403 // Complex Learning Environments and Authentic Tasks 403 Social Negotiation 404 // Multiple Perspectives and Representations of Content 404 Understanding the Knowledge Construction Process
404 Student Ownership of Learning 404 Applying Constructivist Perspectives 404 Inquiry and Problem-Based Learning 405 Examples of Inquiry 406 Problem-Based Learning 406 Research on Inquiry and Problem-Based Learning 408 Cognitive Apprenticeships and Reciprocal Teaching 408 Point/Counterpoint: Are Inquiry and Problem-Based Learning Effective Teaching Approaches? 409 Cognitive Apprenticeships in Reading: Reciprocal Teaching 411 Applying Reciprocal Teaching 411 Collaboration and Cooperation 411 // Collaboration, Group Work, and Cooperative Learning 412 Beyond Groups to Cooperation 412 What Can Go Wrong: Misuses of Group Learning 413 Tasks for Cooperative Learning 413 // Highly Structured, Review, and Skill-Building Tasks 414 Ill-Structured, Conceptual, and Problem-Solving Tasks 414 Social Skills and Communication Tasks 414 Preparing Students for Cooperative Learning 414 Setting Up Cooperative Groups 415 Giving and Receiving Explanations 415 Assigning Roles 416 Designs for Cooperation 417 Reciprocal Questioning 417 Jigsaw 418 // Constructive/Structured Controversies 418 Reaching Every Student: Using Cooperative Learning Wisely 419 Guidelines: Using Cooperative Learning 420 Dilemmas of Constructivist Practice 420 // 22 CONTENTS // Service Learning 421 // Guidelines: Family and Community Partnerships—Service Learning 422 // Learning in a Digital World 423 // Technology and Learning 423 Technology-Rich Environments 424 Virtual Learning Environments 424 Personal Learning Environments
425 Immersive Virtual Learning Environments 425 Games 426 // Developmentally Appropriate Computer Activities for Young Children 426 // Computers and Older Students 427 Computational Thinking and Coding 427 // Guidelines: Using Computers 428 Media/Digital Literacy 429 // Guidelines: Supporting the Development of Media Literacy 430 // Summary 430 // Key Terms 432 // Teachers’ Casebook—Learning to Cooperate: What Would They Do? 433 // Social Cognitive Views of Learning and Motivation 436 // Teachers’ Casebook—Failure to Self-Regulate: What Would You Do? 436 // Overview and Objectives 437 // Social Cognitive Theory 438 // A Self-Directed Life: Albert Bandura 438 Beyond Behaviorism 438 Triarchic Reciprocal Causality 439 // Modeling: Learning by Observing Others 440 Elements of Observational Learning 441 Attention 441 Retention 442 Production 442 // Motivation and Reinforcement 442 Observational Learning in Teaching 443 Directing Attention 443 Fine Tuning Already-Learned Behaviors 443 Strengthening or Weakening Inhibitions 443 Teaching New Behaviors 443 Arousing Emotion 443 // Guidelines: Using Observational Learning 444 // Self-Efficacy and Agency 444 // Self-Efficacy, Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem 445 // Sources of Self-Efficacy 445 // Self-Efficacy in Learning and Teaching 446 // Guidelines: Encouraging Self-Efficacy 447 // Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy 448 // Self-Regulated Learning 448 // Point/Counterpoint: Are High Levels of Teacher Efficacy Beneficial? 449 // What Influences
Self-Regulation? 450 Knowledge 450 Motivation 450 Volition 451 // Development of Self-Regulation 451 Models of Self-Regulated Learning and Agency 451 An Individual Example of Self-Regulated Learning 453 Two Classrooms 454 Writing 454 // Math Problem Solving 454 Technology and Self-Regulation 455 Reaching Every Student: Families and Self-Regulation 455 // Another Approach to Self-Regulation: Cognitive Behavior Modification 455 // Guidelines: Family and Community Partnerships 456 // Emotional Self-Regulation 457 // Guidelines: Encouraging Emotional Self-Regulation 458 // Teaching Toward Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulated Learning 459 // Complex Tasks 460 Control 460 Self-Evaluation 461 Collaboration 461 // Bringing It All Together: Theories of Learning 462 // Summary 463 Key Terms 465 // Teachers’ Casebook—Failure to Self-Regulate: What Would They Do? 466 // Motivation in Learning and Teaching 468 // Teachers’ Casebook—Motivating Students When Resources Are Thin: What Would You Do? 468 Overview and Objectives 469 What Is Motivation? 470 // Meeting Some Students 470 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 471 Five General Approaches to Motivation 472 Behavioral Approaches to Motivation 472 Humanistic Approaches to Motivation 472 Cognitive Approaches to Motivation 473 Social Cognitive Theories 473 Sociocultural Conceptions of Motivation 473 Needs 474 // Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 474 // CONTENTS 23 // Self-Determination: Need for Competence, Autonomy, and Relatedness 475 Self-Determination
in the Classroom 476 Information and Control 476 // Guidelines: Supporting Self-Determination and Autonomy 477 // The Need for Relatedness 477 Needs: Lessons for Teachers 478 Goal Orientations 478 // Types of Goals and Goal Orientations 478 // Four Achievement Goal Orientations in School 479 Wait—Are Performance Goals Always Bad? 480 Beyond Mastery and Performance 481 Goals in Social Context 481 Feedback, Goal Framing, and Goal Acceptance 482 Goals: Lessons for Teachers 482 Beliefs and Self-Perceptions 482 // Beliefs About Knowing: Epistemological Beliefs 482 Beliefs About Ability 483 // Beliefs About Causes and Control: Attribution Theory 484 Attributions in the Classroom 485 Teacher Actions and Student Attributions 485 Beliefs About Self-Worth 486 Learned Helplessness 486 Self-Worth 486 // Guidelines: Encouraging Self-Worth 488 // Beliefs and Attributions: Lessons for Teachers 488 Interests, Curiosity, Emotions, and Anxiety 488 // Tapping Interests 489 // Catching and Holding Interests 489 Point/Counterpoint: Does Making Learning Fun Make for Good Learning? 490 // Curiosity: Novelty and Complexity 491 Flow 491 // Emotions and Anxiety 491 // Neuroscience and Emotion 491 // Guidelines: Building on Students’ Interests and Curiosity 492 // Achievement Emotions 493 Arousal and Anxiety 493 Anxiety in the Classroom 494 How Does Anxiety Interfere with Achievement? 494 % Reaching Every Student: Coping with Anxiety 495 Guidelines: Coping with Anxiety 496 Curiosity, Interests, and Emotions:
Lessons for Teachers 496 Motivation to Learn in School: On Target 497 Tasks for Learning 498 Task Value 498 // Beyond Task Value to Genuine Appreciation 498 Authentic Tasks 498 // Supporting Autonomy and Recognizing Accomplishment 499 Supporting Choices 499 Recognizing Accomplishment 499 // Grouping, Evaluation, and Time 500 Grouping and Goal Structures 500 Evaluation 500 Time 501 // Putting It All Together 501 Diversity in Motivation 503 Lessons for Teachers: Strategies to Encourage Motivation 503 // Can I Do It? Building Confidence and Positive Expectations 504 // Do I Want to Do It? Seeing the Value of Learning 504 What Do I Need to Do to Succeed? Staying Focused on the Task 505 // Do I Belong in This Classroom? 505 Guidelines: Motivation to Learn: Family and Community Partnerships 506 // Summary 506 Key Terms 509 // Teachers’ Casebook—Motivating Students When Resources Are Thin: What Would They Do? 510 // PART III: TEACHING // AND ASSESSING // Creating Learning Environments 512 // Teachers’ Casebook—Bullies and Victims: What Would You Do? 512 // Overview and Objectives 513 // The What and Why of Classroom Management 514 // The Basic Task: Gain Their Cooperation 516 The Goals of Classroom Management 517 Access to Learning 517 More Time for Learning 517 Management for Self-Management 518 Creating a Positive Learning Environment 519 Some Research Results 519 Routines and Rules Required 520 Routines and Procedures 520 Rules 520 // Rules for Elementary School 520 Guidelines:
Establishing Class Routines 521 Rules for Secondary School 522 Consequences 522 // Who Sets the Rules and Consequences 522 Planning Spaces for Learning 523 Personal Territories 524 Interest Areas 524 // Guidelines: Designing Learning Spaces 525 // Getting Started: The First Weeks of Class 525 // 24 CONTENTS // Effective Managers for Elementary Students 525 Effective Managers for Secondary Students 527 Maintaining a Good Environment for Learning 527 Encouraging Engagement 527 // Guidelines: Keeping Students Engaged 528 // Prevention Is the Best Medicine 528 Withitness 529 // Overlapping and Group Focus 529 Movement Management 529 Student Social Skills as Prevention 529 Caring Relationships: Connections with School 530 School Connections 530 Creating Communities of Care for Adolescents 530 // Guidelines: Creating Caring Relationships 531 // Dealing with Discipline Problems 532 // Stopping Problems Quickly 532 Guidelines: Imposing Penalties 533 Bullying and Cyberbullying 534 Victims 534 // Why Do Students Bully? 536 Bullying and Teasing 536 Changing Attributions 537 Cyberbullying 537 Special Problems with High School Students 538 // Guidelines: Handling Potentially Explosive Situations 539 // Point/Counterpoint: Is Zero Tolerance a Good Idea? 540 // The Need for Communication 541 // Message Sent—Message Received 541 Diagnosis: Whose Problem Is It? 542 Counseling: The Student’s Problem 542 Confrontation and Assertive Discipline 543 "I" Messages 543 Assertive Discipline 543 Confrontations
and Negotiations 544 Reaching Every Student: Peer Mediation and Restorative Justice 544 Peer Mediation 545 Restorative Justice 545 The 4 RS 545 // Research on Management Approaches 546 Integrating Ideas 546 Guidelines: Family and Community // Partnerships—Classroom Management 546 Connecting with Families About Classroom Management 547 // Diversity: Culturally Responsive Management 547 Summary 548 Key Terms 550 // Teachers’ Casebook—Bullies and Victims: What Would They Do? 552 // I Teaching Every Student 554 // Teachers’ Casebook—Reaching and Teaching Every Student: What Would You Do? 554 Overview and Objectives 555 Research on Teaching 556 // Characteristics of Effective Teachers 556 Clarity and Organization 556 Warmth and Enthusiasm 556 Knowledge for Teaching 557 Recent Research on Teaching 557 The First Step: Planning 559 Research on Planning 559 Objectives for Learning 560 // An Example of Standards: The Common Core 560 An Example of Standards for Teachers: Technology 561 Classrooms: Instructional Objectives 562 Mager: Start with the Specific 562 Gronlund: Start with the General 562 Flexible and Creative Plans—Using Taxonomies 563 The Cognitive Domain 563 The Affective Domain 564 The Psychomotor Domain 564 Guidelines: Using Instructional Objectives 565 Planning from a Constructivist Perspective 565 Teaching Approaches 566 Direct Instruction 566 // Rosenshine’s Six Teaching Functions 567 Advance Organizers 567 Why Does Direct Instruction Work? 568 Evaluating Direct Instruction
568 Seatwork and Homework 569 Seatwork 569 // Guidelines: Effective Direct Instruction 570 Homework 571 // Questioning, Discussion, and Dialogue 571 Point/Counterpoint: Is Homework a Valuable Use of Time? 572 Guidelines: Family and Community Partnerships—Homework 573 Kinds of Questions 573 Fitting the Questions to the Students 573 Responding to Student Answers 575 Group Discussion 575 Fitting Teaching to Your Goals 576 Putting It All Together: Understanding by Design 576 Guidelines: Productive Group Discussions 577 Differentiated Instruction and Adaptive Teaching 579 Within-Class and Flexible Grouping 579 The Problems with Ability Grouping 579 Flexible Grouping 579 Guidelines: Using Flexible Grouping 580 Adaptive Teaching 580 // Reaching Every Student: Differentiated Instruction in Inclusive Classrooms 581 // CONTENTS 25 // Technology and Differentiation 583 Guidelines: Teachers as Mentors 584 Mentoring Students as a Way of Differentiating Teaching 585 Teacher Expectations 585 // Two Kinds of Expectation Effects 585 Sources of Expectations 586 Do Teachers’ Expectations Really Affect Students’ Achievement? 586 Instructional Strategies 587 Teacher-Student Interactions 587 Lessons for Teachers: Communicating Appropriate Expectations 587 // Guidelines: Avoiding the Negative Effects of Teacher Expectations 588 // Summary 589 Key Terms 591 // Teachers’ Casebook—Reaching and Teaching Every Student: What Would They Do? 592 // Classroom Assessment, Grading, and Standardized Testing
594 // Teachers’ Casebook—Giving Meaningful Grades: What Would You Do? 594 // Overview and Objectives 595 Basics of Assessment 596 // Measurement and Assessment 596 // Formative and Summative Assessment 596 Norm-Referenced Test Interpretations 597 Criterion-Referenced Test Interpretations 598 Assessing the Assessments: Reliability and Validity 599 Reliability of Test Scores 599 Error in Scores 599 Confidence Interval 599 Validity 600 Absence of Bias 600 Classroom Assessment: Testing 601 Using the Tests from Textbooks 602 Objective Testing 602 // Using Multiple-Choice Tests 603 Writing Multiple-Choice Questions 603 Essay Testing 603 // Constructing Essay Tests 603 Guidelines: Writing Objective Test Items 604 Evaluating Essays 604 The Value of Traditional Testing 605 Criticisms of Traditional Tests 605 Authentic Classroom Assessments 606 Portfolios and Exhibitions 606 Portfolios 607 Exhibitions 607 // Guidelines: Creating Portfolios 608 Evaluating Portfolios and Performances 608 Scoring Rubrics 608 Guidelines: Developing a Rubric 609 Reliability, Validity, Generalizability 610 Diversity and Bias in Performance Assessment 611 Informal Assessments 611 Journals 611 // Involving Students in Assessments 612 // Grading 613 // Norm-Referenced versus Criterion-Referenced Grading 613 // Effects of Grading on Students 614 The Value of Failing? 615 Retention in Grade 615 Gradesand Motivation 615 // Point/Counterpoint: Should Children Be Held Back? 616 // Beyond Grading: Communicating with
Families 617 Guidelines: Using Any Grading System 618 // Standardized Testing 619 // Types of Scores 619 // Measurements of Central Tendency and Standard Deviation 619 // The Normal Distribution 620 Percentile Rank Scores 621 Grade-Equivalent Scores 621 Standard Scores 621 // Interpreting Standardized Test Reports 623 Discussing Test Results with Families 624 Accountability and High-Stakes Testing 624 Guidelines: Family and Community Partnerships— Conferences and Explaining Test Results 625 Making Decisions 625 What Do Teachers Think? 626 Documented Problems with High-Stakes Testing 626 Using High-Stakes Testing Well 627 Guidelines: Preparing Yourself and Your Students for Testing 628 Reaching Every Student: Helping Students with Disabilities Prepare for High-Stakes Tests 629 Current Directions: Value-Added and PARCC 629 Value-Added Measures 629 PARCC Tests 630 // Lessons for Teachers: Quality Assessment 630 Summary 631 Key Terms 633 // Teachers’ Casebook—Giving Meaningful Grades: What Would They Do? 634 Appendix 637 Glossary 655 References 665 Name Index 701 Subject Index 711 // Special Features // TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK: // WHAT WOULD YOU DO? // Leaving No Student Behind 28 // Leaving No Student Behind 53 // Symbols and Cymbals 56 // Symbols and Cymbals 96 // Mean Girls 98 // Mean Girls 142 // Including Every Student 144 // Including Every Student 194 // Cultures Clash in the Classroom 196 // Cultures Clash in the Classroom 232 // White Girls Club 234 // White Girls Club 273
// Sick of Class 276 // Sick of Class 312 // Remembering the Basics 314 // Remembering the Basics 350 // Uncritical Thinking 352 // Uncritical Thinking 392 // Learning to Cooperate 394 // Learning to Cooperate 434 // Failure to Self-Regulate 436 // Failure to Self-Regulate 466 // Motivating Students When Resources Are Thin 468 // Motivating Students When Resources Are Thin 511 // Bullies and Victims 512 // Bullies and Victims 552 // Reaching and Teaching Every Student 554 // Reaching and Teaching Every Student 592 // Giving Meaningful Grades 594 // Giving Meaningful Grades 634 // GUIDELINES // Family and Community Partnerships—Helping Families Care // for Preoperational Children 75 // Teaching the Concrete-Operational Child 77 // 26 // Helping Students to Use Formal Operations 79 Applying Vygotsky’s Ideas in Teaching 92 Dealing with Physical Differences in the Classroom 102 Supporting Positive Body Images in Adolescents 106 Family and Community Partnerships—Connecting with Families 110 // Helping Children of Divorce 111 // Dealing with Aggression and Encouraging Cooperation 116 Encouraging Initiative and Industry 122 Supporting Identity Formation 124 Interpreting IQ Scores 155 // Family and Community Partnerships—Productive Conferences 164 // Disciplining Students with Emotional Problems 175 Teaching Students with Intellectual Disabilities 178 Supporting Language and Promoting Literacy 204 Promoting Language Learning 211 Providing Emotional Support and Increasing Self-Esteem
for Students Who Are ELLs 224 Family and Community Partnerships—Welcoming all Families 226 // Teaching Students Who Live in Poverty 247 Avoiding Gender Bias in Teaching 260 Family and Community Partnerships 265 Culturally Relevant Teaching 269 Applying Classical Conditioning 281 Applying Operant Conditioning: Using Praise Appropriately 290 // Applying Operant Conditioning: Encouraging Positive Behaviors 292 // Applying Operant Conditioning: Using Punishment 298 // Family and Community Partnerships—Applying Operant Conditioning: Student Self-Management 304 Gaining and Maintaining Attention 323 // Family and Community Partnerships—Organizing Learning 339 Helping Students Understand and Remember 346 Becoming an Expert Student 364 Applying Problem Solving 374 Applying and Encouraging Creativity 380 // SPECIAL FEATURES 27 // Family and Community Partnerships—Promoting Transfer 388 Using Cooperative Learning 420 // Family and Community Partnerships—Service Learning 422 Using Computers 428 // Supporting the Development of Media Literacy 430 Using Observational Learning 444 Encouraging Self-Efficacy 447 // Family and Community Partnerships—Supporting Self-Regulation at Home and in School 456 // Encouraging Emotional Self-Regulation 458 Supporting Self-Determination and Autonomy 477 Encouraging Self-Worth 488 Building on Students’ Interests and Curiosity 492 Coping with Anxiety 496 // Motivation to Learn: Family and Community Partnerships— Understand family goals for children

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