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Bibliografická citace

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EB
EB
ONLINE
Dordrecht : Springer, 2017
1 online zdroj
Externí odkaz    Plný text PDF 
   * Návod pro vzdálený přístup 


ISBN 978-94-024-1183-6 (e-kniha)
ISBN 978-94-024-1181-2 (print)
Landscape Series, ISSN 1572-7742 ; 23
Climb a mountain and experience the landscape. Try to grasp its holistic nature. Do not climb alone, but with others and share your experience. Be sure the ways of seeing the landscape will be very different. We experience the landscape with all senses as a complex, dynamic and hierarchically structured whole. The landscape is tangible out there and simultaneously a mental reality. Several perspectives are obvious because of language, culture and background. Many disciplines developed to study the landscape focussing on specific interest groups and applications. Gradually the holistic way of seeing became lost.  This book explores the different perspectives on the landscape in relation to its holistic nature. We start from its multiple linguistic meanings and a comprehensive overview of the development of landscape research from its geographical origins to the wide variety of today’s specialised disciplines and interest groups. Understanding the different perspectives on the landscapes and bringing them together is essential in transdisciplinary approaches where the landscape is the integrating concept..
* urban planning
001473811
1 The Holistic Nature of Landscape - Landscape as an Integrating Concept 1 // 1.1 Climbing the Mountain 1 // 1.2 The Landscape Is in the Eye of the Beholder? 5 // 1.3 Dealing with “The Whole That Is More Than // the Sum of its Parts” 6 // 1.4 The Structure of the Book 7 // References 9 // 2 The History of Landscape Research 11 // 2.1 Introduction 11 // 2.2 A Complex Story 12 // 2.3 The Early Beginnings 12 // 2.4 The Emerging Scientific Research - The Landscape as Object of Study of Geography 13 // 2.4.1 The Societal Context 14 // 2.4.2 The Landscape Concept in National Geographical Schools 15 // 2.5 Landscape from the Air: Aerial Photography and Historical Geography 18 // 2.6 The Loss of Synthesis 19 // 2.7 The Humanistic Approach and the Revival of Landscape Ecology 21 // 2.8 The ‘Landscape Crisis’ and the Shift Towards Applied and Transdisciplinary Landscape Studies 22 // 2.9 Landscape in n-Grams 24 // References 30 // 3 The Multiple Meanings of Landscape 35 // 3.1 Introduction 35 // 3.2 Origins and Etymology of the Word Landscape 36 / // 3.3 Subtleties of Language - Landscape Versus Land 39 // 3.4 Landscape with Adjectives 42 // 3.4.1 Natural and Cultural Landscape 43 // 3.4.2 Rural and Urban Landscape 45 // 3.4.3 Ordinary and Spectacular Landscapes 46 // 3.4.4 Landscape and the Beautiful, the Sublime, the Picturesque and the Pictorial 46 // 3.4.5 Ephemeral and Seasonal Landscapes 49 // 3.5 Formal Definitions 50 // 3.5.1 Cultural Landscapes in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention 50 // 3.5.2 The European Landscape Convention 51 // 3.5.3 Shifting Landscape Research Since the Coming of Formal Definitions 55 // 3.6 Elements for an Operational Definition of Landscape 57 // References 57 // 4 Approaches in Landscape Research 61 // 4.1 Introduction 61 // 4.2 Ways of Seeing 62 // 4.2.1 The Bird’s-Eye Perspective: Landscapes at a Distance 62 //
4.2.2 The ‘Interior’ Perspective: Being in the Landscape - Lookouts and Composite Landscapes 67 // 4.2.3 The Inner Perspective: Mindscapes and Visualisations 69 // 4.2.4 Landscape as Meta-Reality: The Transcendental Perspective 70 // 4.3 Disciplines 71 // 4.3.1 Geography and Historical Geography 71 // 4.3.2 Landscape Ecology 72 // 4.3.3 Historical Ecology 74 // 4.3.4 Archaeology 74 // 4.3.5 Environmental Psychology 74 // 4.3.6 Landscape Architecture 75 // 4.3.7 Economics 75 // 4.4 Inter- and Transdisciplinary Approaches 76 // References 78 // 5 Basic Concepts of a Complex Spatial System 81 // 5.1 Introduction 81 // 5.2 Holism 82 // 5.3 Scale and Heterogeneity 89 // 5.3.1 A Source of Conceptual Confusion 89 // 5.3.2 The Spatial Scale 89 // 5.3.3 The Temporal/Time Scale 90 // 5.3.4 The Organisation and Planning Scale 90 // 5.3.5 Landscape Heterogeneity Is Scale Dependent 90 // 5.4 Discrete Objects and Continuous Phenomena 91 // 5.5 Landscape in Layers 92 // 5.6 The Map Is Not the Landscape, Nor Is Its Representation 92 // 5.7 Borders, Fuzziness, Gradients and Ecotones 94 // 5.8 Interaction Between Spatial Patterns and Processes 95 // 5.9 Connectivity and Connectedness 96 // 5.10 Multifunctionality 97 // 5.11 Reading a Palimpsest 97 // References 98 // 6 Sensing and Experiencing the Landscape 103 // 6.1 Introduction 103 // 6.2 Landscape Perception, Experience and Preference 104 // 6.3 Seeing the Landscape 106 // 6.3.1 The Human Vision 106 // 6.3.2 Concepts and Definitions 108 // 6.3.3 Landscape as a Scene: Depth Layers, Viewing Sectors and Skyline 111 // 6.3.4 Photographic Perspectives 113 // 6.3.5 Panoramas, Vistas, Eye-Catchers and Landmarks 118 // 6.4 Conditions of Perception 119 // 6.4.1 Standing Where? 119 // 6.4.2 Movement 120 // 6.4.3 Atmospheric Perspective and Skylight 121 // 6.4.4 Time and Lighting Conditions 122 //
6.5 Gestalt-Principles and Perception 123 // 6.5.1 Visual 123 // 6.5.2 Soundscapes 126 // 6.6 Experiencing the Landscape 128 // 6.6.1 Landscape Experience Assessment 128 // 6.6.2 Theories 128 // 6.6.3 Research Models and Paradigms 133 // 6.7 Experts and Laypeople Experience the Landscape Differently 135 // References 136 // 7 Landscape Dynamics and Evolution 141 // 7.1 Introduction 141 // 7.2 The Landscape is Dynamic 142 // 7.3 Landscape Genesis and History 143 // 7.3.1 From Traditional to New Landscapes 144 // 7.4 Contemporary Driving Forces and Processes of Landscape Change 147 // 7.4.1 A Global View - Driving Forces 147 // 7.4.2 Processes 151 // 7.4.3 Networking: The Network Society of the Information Age 156 // 7.4.4 Calamities 158 // 7.5 Models and Processes of Urbanisation 158 // 7.5.1 Urban or Not Urban, That’s the Question 160 // 7.5.2 A Process of Diffusion: From Urban Sprawl to Functional Urban Areas 161 // 7.6 Concepts and Models to Study Landscape Change 165 // 7.6.1 The Biography of a Landscape 165 // 7.6.2 Space-Time Models to Study Change 165 // 7.6.3 Time Depth and Landscape Paths/Trajectories 167 // References 171 // 8 Analysing Landscape Patterns 177 // 8.1 Introduction 177 // 8.2 Decomposing the Landscape: Models for Analysis 178 // 8.2.1 Model 1: Element, Component, Structure 178 // 8.2.2 Model 2: Point, Line, Polygon, Surface 180 // 8.2.3 Model 3: Patch, Corridor, Matrix, Mosaic 180 // 8.2.4 Model 4: Mass, Screen, Space 181 // 8.2.5 Model 5: Landmark, District, Path, Node, Edge 183 // 8.3 The Map Is Not the Landscape 187 // 8.3.1 Mapping Landscape Features 187 // 8.3.2 Size and Scale Dependency in Choropleth Maps 188 // 8.4 Everything Is Related to Everything Else 188 // 8.4.1 Vertical and Horizontal Relations 189 // 8.4.2 Correlation and Coherence 190 // 8.4.3 Landscape Heterogeneity and Diversity: Applications of the Information Theory 193 //
8.4.4 Networks: Connections and Fragmentation 195 // 8.5 Landscape Metrics and Indicators 200 // References 206 // 9 Building Blocks of the Landscape 209 // 9.1 A Substrate Carrying Human Life 209 // 9.1.1 The Terrain as Foundation: The Natural Settings 211 // 9.1.2 Cultural Building Blocks: The Human Impact 214 // 9.2 People Inhabit the Landscape: Settlements 216 // 9.2.1 The Settlement Site 218 // 9.2.2 Principles for a Settlement Typology 220 // 9.3 People Use the Land 232 // 9.3.1 Organizing Territory and Landscape 232 // 9.3.2 Small Elements Give a Characteristic Touch 241 // 9.3.3 People Name Landscapes: Toponyms 250 // 9.4 Mosaics and Borders: Interactions Between Places 250 // 9.4.1 Settlement Patterns: Clustered or Scattered? 250 // 9.4.2 The Multiple Estate 252 // 9.4.3 Territorial Mosaics 252 // 9.4.4 Evolution of Settlement Patterns and Territories 256 // 9.4.5 Hierarchy of Settlements 259 // References 261 // 10 Identifying, Mapping and Assessing Landscapes 265 // 10.1 From Identification to Monitoring 265 // 10.1.1 Making Spatial Units 266 // 10.1.2 Typology and Chorology 267 // 10.1.3 Basic Methodological Approaches 270 // 10.1.4 Adding the Third Dimension 274 // 10.1.5 Dealing with Borders 277 // 10.1.6 A Hierarchy of Landscape Units 278 // 10.2 Landscape Identification 280 // 10.2.1 Atlases, Catalogues, Observatories 280 // 10.2.2 Generic Traditional Landscape Types 284 // 10.2.3 Mapping New Landscapes 286 // 10.2.4 Mapping the Visual Landscape 287 // 10.2.5 Mapping the Mindscape 292 // 10.3 Landscape Assessment 294 // 10.3.1 Attributes, Variables, Indicators and Criteria 294 // 10.3.2 Assigning Values: What Is Significant and Important? 297 // 10.3.3 Landscape Character Assessment 298 // 10.4 Landscape Monitoring 300 // References 302 // 11 The Artist’s Landscape 311 // 11.1 Landscape as a Source of Artistic Inspiration 311 //
11.2 Landscape Painting - The Imagined Landscape 313 // 11.2.1 Landscapes That Are Not the Landscape 313 // 11.2.2 The Challenge of Perspective 313 // 11.2.3 Setting the Scene: A Brief Overview of Important Historical Steps 316 // 11.3 Making a Statement - From Vision to Landscape Design 330 // 11.3.1 Marking the Land 330 // 11.3.2 From Garden Design to Landscape Architecture 330 // 11.3.3 Principles of Landscape Architecture 332 // 11.3.4 Dimensions in Landscape Design Styles 336 // 11.3.5 A Brief Overview of the Succession // of Garden Styles 337 // 11.4 Making Places - Evolving Landscape Design Styles 359 // 11.4.1 A Prototype: Vaux-le-Vicomte 359 // 11.4.2 A Model: Versailles 364 // 11.4.3 The Up-scaling to Urban Planning 366 // 11.5 Practices in Contemporary Landscape Architecture 371 // References 372 // 12 Bringing It All Together - Taking Care of the Landscape 377 // 12.1 Speaking for the Landscape 378 // 12.2 Who Is Competent? 378 // 12.3 Landscape Planning Is a Spin-Off from Spatial Planning 381 // 12.4 Planning a Complex and Highly Dynamical System 383 // 12.5 Subsidiarity and Fragmentation 383 // 12.6 Planning at the Landscape Scale - Landscape as Integrating Concept 384 // 12.7 Landscape Qualities, Values and Services 387 // 12.7.1 The Intrinsic Value of Landscape and the Question of ‘Right’ and ‘Wrong’ 387 // 12.7.2 Assigning Landscape Values: Many Decisions to Make 389 // 12.7.3 Respect Our Common Heritage: The Past Is Important for the Future 390 // 12.7.4 Criteria to Assess Holistic Qualities of the Landscape 392 // 12.7.5 Shaping the Future: Landscape Quality Objectives 397 // 12.7.6 Landscape Services 399 // 12.8 Principles to Set Goals for the Landscape 400 // 12.8.1 Attempt Sustainable Development 400 // 12.8.2 Stimulate Multifunctionality Wisely 401 // 12.8.3 Reduce All Kinds of Fragmentation 402 //
12.8.4 The Endless Feedback Loop Between Functioning and Spatial Structure 404 // 12.8.5 Interesting Diversity, Safe Order and a Distinct Character and Identity 405 // 12.9 Some Methodological Issues of the Planning Process 406 // 12.9.1 Top-Down and/or Bottom-Up? 406 // 12.9.2 Visualisation and the Immersion in Virtual Landscapes 407 // 12.9.3 Participatory Mapping: Bringing Knowledge of Locals and Experts Together 409 // 12.9.4 Making a Diagnosis of the Actual Landscape 409 // 12.9.5 Choosing the Type of Management 410 // 12.10 A Strong Forward-Looking Action to Enhance, Restore or Create Landscapes 410 // 12.10.1 Dealing with the Uncertain Future 410 // 12.10.2 Uncertainty, Risk, Hazard and the Precautionary Principle 412 // 12.10.3 Scenarios for Future Landscapes 414 // References 415 // Index 423

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