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Cham : Springer International Publishing 2017
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ISBN 978-3-319-42928-1 (e-kniha)
ISBN 978-3-319-42926-7 (print)
Springer Handbooks
This Handbook presents a complete and rigorous overview of the fundamentals, methods and applications of the multidisciplinary field of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), providing an exhaustive, one-stop reference work and a state-of-the-art description of GNSS as a key technology for science and society at large. All global and regional satellite navigation systems, both those currently in operation and those under development (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, IRNSS/NAVIC, SBAS), are examined in detail. The functional principles of receivers and antennas, as well as the advanced algorithms and models for GNSS parameter estimation, are rigorously discussed.  The book covers the broad and diverse range of land, marine, air and space applications, from everyday GNSS to high-precision scientific applications and provides detailed descriptions of the most widely used GNSS format standards, covering receiver formats as well as IGS product and meta-data formats.The full coverage of the field of GNSS is presented in seven parts, from its fundamentals, through the treatment of global and regional navigation satellite systems, of receivers and antennas, and of algorithms and models, up to the broad and diverse range of applications in the areas of positioning and navigation, surveying, geodesy and geodynamics, and remote sensing and timing. Each chapter is written by international experts and amply illustrated with figures and photographs, making the book an invaluable resource for scientists, engineers, students and institutions alike..
001474485
List of Abbreviations XXVII // Part A Principles of GNSS // 1 Introduction to GNSS // Richard B. Langley, Peter J.G. Teunissen, Oliver Montenbruck 3 // 1.1 Early Satellite Navigation 3 // 1.2 Concept of GNSS Positioning 5 // 1.3 Modeling the Observations 10 // 1.4 Positioning Modes 13 // 1.5 Current and Developing GNSSs 16 // 1.6 GNSS for Science and Society at Large 19 // References 22 // 2 Time and Reference Systems // Christopher Jekeli, Oliver Montenbruck 25 // 2.1 Time 25 // 2.2 Spatial Reference Systems 31 // 2.3 Terrestrial Reference System 34 // 2.4 Celestial Reference System 44 // 2.5 Transformations Between ICRF and ITRF 46 // 2.6 Perspectives 55 // References 56 // 3 Satellite Orbits and Attitude // Urs Hugentobler, Oliver Montenbruck 59 // 3.1 Keplerian Motion 59 // 3.2 Orbit Perturbations 66 // 3.3 Broadcast Orbit Models 79 // 3.4 Attitude 85 // References 87 // 4 Signals and Modulation // Michael Meurer, Felix Antreich 91 // 4.1 Radiofrequency Signals 91 // 4.2 Spread Spectrum Technique and Pseudo Random Codes 97 // 4.3 Modulation Schemes 107 // 4.4 Signal Multiplexing 113 // 4.5 Navigation Data and Data-Free Channels 117 // References 118 // 5 Clocks // Ron Beard, Ken Senior 121 // 5.1 Frequency and Time Stability 122 // 5.2 Clock Technologies 127 // 5.3 Space-Qualified Atomic Standards 138 // 5.4 Relativistic Effects on Clocks 148 // 5.5 International Timescales 155 // 5.6 GNSS Timescales 158 // References 160 // 6 Atmospheric Signal Propagation // Thomas Hobiger, Norbert Jakowski 165 // 6.1 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation 165 // 6.2 Troposphere 168 // 6.3 Ionospheric Effects on GNSS Signal Propagation 177 // References 190 // Part ? Satellite Navigation Systems // 7 The Global Positioning System (GPS) // Christopher J. Hegarty 197 // 7.1 Space Segment 197 // 7.2 Control Segment 203 // 7.3 Navigation Signals 205 // 7.4 Navigation Data and Algorithms 210 //
7.5 Time System and Geodesy 216 // 7.6 Services and Performance 216 // References 217 // 8 GLONASS // Sergey Revnivykh, Alexey Bolkunov, Alexander Serdyukov // Oliver Montenbruck 219 // 8.1 Overview 219 // 8.2 Navigation Signals and Services 225 // 8.3 Satellites 232 // 8.4 Launch Vehicles 237 // 8.5 Ground Segment 238 // 8.6 GLONASS Open Service Performance 241 // References 243 // 9 Galileo // Marco Falcone, Jörg Hahn, Thomas Burger 247 // 9.1 Constellation 248 // 9.2 Signals and Services 250 // 9.3 Spacecraft 265 // 9.4 Ground Segment 269 // 9.5 Summary 270 // References 271 // 10 Chinese Navigation Satellite Systems // Yuanxi Yang, Jing Tang, Oliver Montenbruck 273 // 10.1 BeiDou Navigation Satellite Demonstration System (BDS-1) 275 // 10.2 BeiDou (Regional) Navigation Satellite System (BDS-2) 279 // 10.3 Performance of BDS-2 293 // 10.4 BeiDou (Global) Navigation Satellite System 297 // 10.5 Brief Introduction of CAPS 298 // References 301 // 11 Regional Systems // Satoshi Kogure, A.S. Ganeshan, Oliver Montenbruck 305 // 11.1 Concept of Regional Navigation Satellite Systems 306 // 11.2 Quasi-Zenith Satellite System 306 // 11.3 Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS/NavIC) 321 // References 334 // 12 Satellite Based Augmentation Systems // Todd Walter 339 // 12.1 Aircraft Guidance 340 // 12.2 GPS Error Sources 343 // 12.3 SBAS Architecture 345 // 12.4 SBAS Integrity 349 // 12.5 SBAS User Algorithms 351 // 12.6 Operational and Planned SBAS Systems 353 // 12.7 Evolution of SBAS 358 // References 360 // Part C GNSS Receivers and Antennas // IB Receiver Architecture // Bernd Eissfeller, Jong-Hoon Won 365 // 13.1 Background and History 366 // 13.2 Receiver Building Blocks 372 // 13.3 Multifrequency and Multisystem Receivers 391 // 13.4 Technology Trends 396 // 13.5 Receiver Types 397 // References 399 //
14 Signal Processing // Jong-Hoon Won, Thomas Pany 401 // 14.1 Overview and Scope 402 // 14.2 Received Signal Model 403 // 14.3 Signal Search and Acquisition 406 // 14.4 Signal Tracking 413 // 14.5 Time Synchronization and Data Demodulation 424 // 14.6 GNSS Measurements 428 // 14.7 Advanced Topics 434 // References 440 // 15 Multipath // Michael S. Braasch 443 // 15.1 The Impact of Multipath 444 // 15.2 Characterizing the Multipath Environment 444 // 15.3 Multipath Signal Models 448 // 15.4 Pseudorange and Carrier-Phase Error 450 // 15.5 Multipath Error Envelopes 450 // 15.6 Temporal Error Variation, Bias Characteristics // and Fast Fading Considerations 453 // 15.7 Multipath Mitigation 455 // 15.8 Multipath Measurement 459 // 15.9 A Note About Multipath Impact on Doppler Measurements 466 // 15.10 Conclusions 466 // References 466 // 16 Interference // Todd Humphreys 469 // 16.1 Analysis Technique for Statistically Independent Interference. 471 // 16.2 Canonical Interference Models 476 // 16.3 Quantization Effects 479 // 16.4 Specific Interference Waveforms and Sources 481 // 16.5 Spoofing 485 // 16.6 Interference Detection 491 // 16.7 Interference Mitigation 498 // References 501 // 17 Antennas // Moazam Maqsood, Steven Gao, Oliver Montenbruck 505 // 17.1 GNSS Antenna Characteristics 506 // 17.2 Basic GNSS Antenna Types 509 // 17.3 Application-Specific GNSS Antennas 513 // 17.4 Multipath Mitigation 519 // 17.5 Antennas for GNSS Satellites 523 // 17.6 Antenna Measurement and Calibration 527 // References 531 // 18 Simulators and Test Equipment // Mark G. Petovello, James T. Curran 535 // 18.1 Background 537 // 18.2 RF-Level Simulators 543 // 18.3 IF-Level Simulators 546 // 18.4 Record and Playback Systems 549 // 18.5 Measurement-Level Simulators 552 // 18.6 Combining Live and Simulated Data 554 // 18.7 Other Considerations 556 // 18.8 Summary 557 // References 557 //
Part D GNSS Algorithms and Models // 19 Basic Observation Equations // Andre Hauschild 561 // 19.1 Observation Equations 561 // 19.2 Relativistic Effects 564 // 19.3 Atmospheric Signal Delays 565 // 19.4 Carrier-Phase Wind-Up 569 // 19.5 Antenna Phase-Center Offset and Variations 572 // 19.6 Signal Biases 576 // 19.7 Receiver Noise and Multipath 578 // References 579 // 20 Combinations of Observations // ?ré Hauschild 583 // 20.1 Fundamental Equations 583 // 20.2 Combinations of Single-Satellite and Single-Receiver Observations 586 // 20.3 Combinations of Multisatellite and Multireceiver Observations.. 594 // 20.4 Pseudorange Filtering 601 // References 603 // 21 Positioning Model // Dennis Odijk 605 // 21.1 Nonlinear Observation Equations 606 // 21.2 Linearization of the Observation Equations 609 // 21.3 Point Positioning Models 612 // 21.4 Relative Positioning Models 623 // 21.5 Differenced Positioning Models 631 // 21.6 The Positioning Concepts Related 633 // References 635 // 22 Least-Squares Estimation and Kalman Filtering // Sandra Verhagen, Peter J.G. Teunissen 639 // 22.1 Linear Least-Squares Estimation 639 // 22.2 Optimal Estimation 641 // 22.3 Special Forms of Least Squares 644 // 22.4 Prediction and Filtering 650 // 22.5 Kalman Filtering 653 // References 659 // 23 Carrier Phase Integer Ambiguity Resolution // Peter J.G. Teunissen 661 // 23.1 GNSS Ambiguity Resolution 662 // 23.2 Rounding and Bootstrapping 666 // 23.3 Linear Combinations 669 // 23.4 Integer Least-Squares 673 // 23.5 Partial Ambiguity Resolution 677 // 23.6 When to Accept the Integer Solution? 678 // References 683 // 24 Batch and Recursive Model Validation // Peter J.G. Teunissen 687 // 24.1 Modeling and Validation 687 // 24.2 Batch Model Validation 689 // 24.3 Testing for a Bias 692 // 24.4 Testing Procedure 705 // 24.5 Recursive Model Validation 710 // References 717 //
Part E Positioning and Navigation // 25 Precise Point Positioning // Jan Kouba, Francois Lahaye, Pierre Tétreault 723 // 25.1 PPP Concept 724 // 25.2 Precise Positioning Correction Models 726 // 25.3 Specific Processing Aspects 735 // 25.4 Implementations 741 // 25.5 Examples 743 // 25.6 Discussion 746 // References 747 // 26 Differential Positioning // Dennis Od ijk, Lambert Wanninger 753 // 26.1 Differential GNSS: Concepts 753 // 26.2 Differential Navigation Services 760 // 26.3 Real-Time Kinematic Positioning 763 // 26.4 Network RTK 774 // References 778 // 27 Attitude Determination // Gabriele Giorgi 781 // 27.1 Six Degrees of Freedom 781 // 27.2 Attitude Parameterization 784 // 27.3 Attitude Estimation from Baseline Observations 787 // 27.4 The GNSS Attitude Model 790 // 27.5 Applications 798 // 27.6 An Overview of GNSS/INS Sensor Fusion for Attitude Determination 804 // References 806 // 28 GNSS/INS Integration // Jay A. Farrell, Jan Wendel 811 // 28.1 State Estimation Objectives 812 // 28.2 Inertial Navigation 813 // 28.3 Inertial Sensors 815 // 28.4 Strapdown Inertial Navigation 818 // 28.5 Analysis of Error Effects 822 // 28.6 Aided Navigation 824 // 28.7 State Estimation 824 // 28.8 GNSS and Aided INS 825 // 28.9 Detailed Example 828 // 28.10 Alternative Estimation Methods 835 // 28.11 Looking Forward 838 // References 839 // 29 Land and Maritime Applications // Allison Kealy, Terry Moore 841 // 29.1 Land-Based Applications of GNSS 842 // 29.2 Rail Applications 856 // 29.3 Maritime Applications 863 // 29.4 Outlook 873 // References 873 // 30 Aviation Applications // Richard Farnworth 877 // 30.1 Overview 878 // 30.2 Standardising GNSS for Aviation 881 // 30.3 Evolution of the Flight Deck 884 // 30.4 From the RNP Concept to PBN 886 // 30.5 GNSS Performance Requirements 888 // 30.6 Linking the PBN Requirements and the GNSS Requirements 891 //
30.7 Flight Planning and NOTAMs 897 // 30.8 Regulation and Certification 897 // 30.9 Military Aviation Applications 898 // 30.10 Other Aviation Applications of GNSS 899 // 30.11 Future Evolution 900 // References 901 // 31 Ground Based Augmentation Systems // Sam Pullen 905 // 31.1 Components 906 // 31.2 An Overview of Local Area Approaches 907 // 31.3 Ground-Based Augmentation Systems 909 // 31.4 Augmentation via Ranging Signals Pseudolites 928 // 31.5 Outlook 930 // References 930 // 32 Space Applications // Oliver Montenbruck 933 // 32.1 Flying High 933 // 32.2 Spacecraft Navigation 938 // 32.3 Formation Flying and Rendezvous 951 // 32.4 Other Applications 957 // References 959 // Part F Surveying, Geodesy and Geodynamics // BB The International GNSS Service // Gary Johnston, Anna Riddell, Grant Hausier 967 // 33.1 Mission and Organization 967 // 33.2 Components 969 // 33.3 IGS Products 972 // 33.4 Pilot Projects and Experiments 976 // 33.5 Outlook 981 // References 981 // 34 Orbit and Clock Product Generation // Jan P. Weiss, Peter Steigenberger, Tim Springer 983 // 34.1 Global Tracking Network 984 // 34.2 Models 985 // 34.3 POD Process 992 // 34.4 Estimation Strategies 993 // 34.5 Software 1000 // 34.6 Products 1001 // 34.7 Outlook 1005 // References 1006 // 35 Surveying // Chris Rizos 1011 // 35.1 Precise Positioning Techniques 1013 // 35.2 Geodetic and Land Surveying 1023 // 35.3 Engineering Surveying 1029 // 35.4 Hydrographic Surveying 1033 // References 1035 // 36 Geodesy // Zuheir Altamimi, Richard Gross 1039 // 36.1 GNSS and lAG’s Global Geodetic Observing System 1039 // 36.2 Global and Regional Reference Frames 1044 // 36.3 Earth Rotation, Polar Motion, and Nutation 1054 // References 1059 //
37 Geodynamics // Jeff Freymueller 1063 // 37.1 GNSS for Geodynamics 1064 // 37.2 History and Establishment of GNSS Networks for Geodynamics. 1067 // 37.3 Rigid Plate Motions 1071 // 37.4 Plate Boundary Deformation and the Earthquake Cycle 1073 // 37.5 Seismology 1078 // 37.6 Volcano Deformation 1088 // 37.7 Surface Loading Deformation 1091 // 37.8 The Multi-GNSS Future 1099 // References 1100 // Part G GNSS Remote Sensing and Timing // 38 Monitoring of the Neutral Atmosphere // Gunnar Elgered, Jens Wickert 1109 // 38.1 Ground-Based Monitoring of the Neutral Atmosphere 1110 // 38.2 GNSS Radio Occultation Measurements 1120 // 38.3 Outlook 1132 // References 1133 // 39 Ionosphere Monitoring // Norbert Jakowski 1139 // 39.1 Ground-Based GNSS Monitoring 1140 // 39.2 Space-Based GNSS Monitoring 1144 // 39.3 GNSS-Based 3-D-Tomography 1147 // 39.4 Scintillation Monitoring 1148 // 39.5 Space Weather 1152 // 39.6 Coupling with Lower Geospheres 1156 // 39.7 Information and Data Services 1159 // References 1159 // 40 Reflectometry // Antonio Rias, Este! Cardellach 1163 // 40.1 Receivers 1164 // 40.2 Models 1167 // 40.3 Applications 1172 // 40.4 Spaceborne Missions 1182 // References 1183 // 41 GNSS Time and Frequency Transfer // Pascale Defraigne 1187 // 41.1 GNSS Time and Frequency Dissemination 1187 // 41.2 Remote Clock Comparisons 1191 // 41.3 Hardware Architecture and Calibration 1197 // 41.4 Multi-GNSS Time Transfer 1201 // 41.5 Conclusions 1203 // References 1204 // Annex A: Data Formats 1207 // Annex B: GNSS Parameters 1233 // About the Authors 1241 // Detailed Contents 1251 // Glossary of Defining Terms 1275 // Subject Index 1303

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