1. Introduction (Shinya Funakawa) -- Part I. Distribution of clay minerals in tropical Asia and Africa with special reference to parent materials (geology) and climatic conditions -- 2. Parent materials and climate control secondary mineral distributions in soil in Kalimantan, Indonesia (Tetsuhiro Watanabe and Supiandi Sabiham) -- 3. Influence of climatic factor on clay mineralogy in humid Asia—Significance of vermiculitization of mica minerals under a udic soil moisture regime (Shinya Funakawa and Tetsuhiro Watanabe) -- 4. Soil-forming factors determining the distribution patterns of different soils in Tanzania with special reference to clay mineralogy (Shinya Funakawa and Method Kilasara) -- 5. Soil fertility status in equatorial Africa—A comparison of the Great Rift Valley regions and central/western Africa (Shinya Funakawa and Takashi Kosaki) ---
6. Significance of active aluminum and iron on organic carbon preservation and phosphate sorption/release in tropical soils (Tetsuhiro Watanabe) -- Part II Ecosystem processes in forest-soil systems under different geological, climatic, and soil conditions -- 7. Soil acidification processes under different geological and climatic conditions in tropical Asia (Kazumichi Fujii and Arief Hartono) -- 8. Savannazation of African tropical forest critically changed the soil nutrient dynamics in East Cameroon (Soh Sugihara) -- 9. Ecosystem processes of Ferralsols and Acrisols in forest-soil systems of Cameroon (Makoto Shibata) -- Part III Human adaptation of agricultural practices in upland soils under different bio-climatic conditions in tropical Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa -- 10. Changes in elemental dynamics after reclamation of forest and savanna in Cameroon and comparison with the case in Southeast Asia (Makoto Shibata) ---
11. Shifting cultivation in northern Thailand with special reference to the function of the fallow phase (Shinya Funakawa) -- 12. Slash and burn agriculture in Zambia (Kaori Ando and Hitoshi Shinjo) -- 13. Comparison of nutrient utilization strategies of traditional shifting agriculture under different climatic and soil conditions in Zambia, Thailand, Indonesia, and Cameroon—Examples of temporal redistribution of ecosystem resources (Shinya Funakawa) -- 14. Interactions between agricultural and pastoral activities in the Sahel with emphasis on management of livestock excreta—A case study in southwestern Niger (Hitoshi Shinjo) -- Part IV Possible strategies for controlling nutrient dynamics in future agricultural activities in the tropics -- 15. Control of wind erosion loss of soils and organic matter using the “Fallow Band System” in semi-arid sandy soils of the Sahel (Kenta Ikazaki) ---
16. Process of runoff generation at different cultivated sloping sites in North and Northeast Thailand (Shinya Funakawa) -- 17. Control of water-erosion loss of soils using appropriate surface management in Tanzania and Cameroon (Tomohiro Nishigaki) -- 18. Utilization of soil microbes as a temporal nutrient pool to synchronize nutrient supply and uptake: a trial in the dry tropical croplands of Tanzania (Soh Sugihara and Method Kilasara) -- 19. Conclusion (Shinya Funakawa).
The main objective of this book is to integrate environmental knowledge observed in local agriculture, based on the understanding of soils science and ecology, and to propose possible technical solutions and a more integrated approach to tropical agriculture. The chapters describe and analyze the ecological and technical countermeasures available for mitigating environmental degradation due to the increasing agricultural activities by humans, based on our scientific understanding of traditional agriculture in the tropics. This is an effective approach, as such ecological and technical tools previously involved in traditional activities are expected to be easily incorporated into present agricultural systems. The book starts with a rather classical pedological issue and analyzed traditional agricultural practices with different resource management strategies in terms of their modification of natural biological processes. It focuses on the present situation of tropical agriculture; that is, resource utilization in modern agriculture after application of technical innovation (increased application of chemical fertilizers as well as agricultural chemicals). Here, possible technical approaches to resource management that reasonably support agricultural production whilst mitigating environmental degradation are discussed. The negative impacts of agricultural development on our environment are rapidly growing, yet we are increasingly dependent on the agricultural sector for food and energy. The situation is similar in the tropics, where subsistence agriculture with low input management has long comprised most agricultural systems. Comparison of ecological and/or agronomical studies between different continents are still rare; therefore, this analysis may help clarify what is an essential problem when considering technical transportation beyond continents and/or between temperate and tropical regions..