This atlas presents normal imaging variations of the brain, skull, and craniocervical vasculature. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT) have advanced dramatically in the past 10 years, particularly in regard to new techniques and 3D imaging. One of the major problems experienced by radiologists and clinicians is the interpretation of normal variants as compared with the abnormalities that the variants mimic. Through an extensive collection of images, this book offers a spectrum of appearances for each variant with accompanying 3D imaging for confirmation; explores common artifacts on MR and CT that simulate disease; discusses each variant in terms of the relevant anatomy; and presents comparison cases for the purpose of distinguishing normal findings from abnormalities. It includes both common variants as well as newly identified variants that are visualized by recently developed techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging and multidetector/multislice CT. The book also highlights normal imaging variants in pediatric cases. Atlas of Normal Imaging Variations of the Brain, Skull, and Craniocervical Vasculature is a valuable resource for neuroradiologists, neurologists, neurosurgeons, and radiologists in interpreting the most common and identifiable variants and using the best methods to classify them expediently. ..
Part I: Brain -- Brain Introduction -- Cerebellar Tonsillar Ectopia -- Cerebellar Flocculus Pseudomass -- Mega Cisterna Magna and Retrocerebellar Arachnoid Cysts -- Cranial Nerve VII: Normal Contrast Enhancement on Magnetic Resonance Imaging -- Meckel Cave Prominence, Asymmetry, and Petrous Apex Cephaloceles -- Cavernous Sinus Fat -- Pituitary Variations, Artifacts, Primary Empty Sella, and Incidentalomas -- Liliequist Membrane -- Pineal Gland: Normal Size, Appearance, and Enhancement -- Choroid Plexus: Normal Locations and Appearances -- Hippocampi, Caudate Tail, and Ependymal Variants -- Midline Variants of the Septum Pellucidum, Corpus Callosum, and Massa Intermedia -- Dilated Perivascular Spaces -- Enlargement or Asymmetry of the Lateral Ventricles Simulating Hydrocephalus -- Cerebral or Cerebellar Volume Loss Simulating Subdural Hematomas, Hygromas, and Arachnoid Cysts -- Dural Calcifications: Normal Locations and Appearances -- Pseudo-leptomeningeal Contrast Enhancement -- Basal Ganglia: Physiologic Calcifications -- Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging: Concepts, Basal Ganglia Variations, and Artifacts -- Slow-Flow, Asymptomatic Vascular Malformations: Brain Capillary Telangiectasias and Developmental Venous Anomalies -- Brain MRI Pseudolesions: 3.0T Imaging, FLAIR, and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging -- Pediatric Brain: Normal Variations in Development, Maturation, and Myelination -- Part II: Skull -- Skull: Introduction -- Pediatric Skull: Normal Pediatric Sutures on Computed Tomography -- Skull Base Foramina: Normal Variations and Developmental Defects -- Normal Variations and Developmental Anatomy of the Calvarial Sutures and Fontanelles Above the Skull Base -- Emissary Veins, Vascular-Containing Foramina, and Vascular Depressions of the Skull -- Normal Variations in Calvarial Contour, Irregular Ossification/Aeration, and Inward/Outward Projections/Protuberances --
Other “Don’t Touch” Skull Lesions: Arachnoid Granulations, Calvarial Depressions, Hemangiomas, and Intraosseous Lipomas -- Part III: Craniocervical Vasculature -- Craniocervical Vasculature: Introduction -- Aortic Arch and Great Vessel Origin Arterial Variants -- Cervical Carotid and Vertebral Arterial Variants -- Tortuous Cervical and Intracranial Arteries and Basilar-Carotid Dolichoectasia -- Miscellaneous Cervical Venous Variants -- Intracranial Posterior Circulation Variants -- Intracranial Anterior Circulation Variants -- Infundibular Outpouchings of Intracranial Arteries -- Persistent Carotid-Basilar and Carotid-Vertebral Anastomoses -- Variations in the Intracranial Venous System -- Arachnoid Granulations Within the Dural Sinuses -- Artifacts of the Craniocervical Venous System on MRI -- Artifacts of the Craniocervical Arterial System on MRI -- Artifacts on Craniocervical CT Angiography -- Dense Vessels Simulating Thrombosis on Nonenhanced CT.