This is the first book to cover all aspects of the development of imaging biomarkers and their integration into clinical practice, from the conceptual basis through to the technical aspects that need to be considered in order to ensure that medical imaging can serve as a powerful quantification instrument capable of providing valuable information on organ and tissue properties. The process of imaging biomarker development is considered step by step, covering proof of concept, proof of mechanism, image acquisition, image preparation, imaging biomarker analysis and measurement, detection of measurement biases (proof of principle), proof of efficacy and effectiveness, and reporting of results. Sources of uncertainty in the accuracy and precision of measurements and pearls and pitfalls in gold standards and biological correlation are discussed. In addition, practical use cases are included on imaging biomarker implementation in brain, oncologic, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and abdominal diseases. The authors are a multidisciplinary team of expert radiologists and engineers, and the book will be of value to all with an interest in the quantitative imaging of biomarkers in personalized medicine..
The shift in paradigm to precision medicine in imaging -- International initiatives for the promotion of imaging biomarkers -- Introduction to the stepwise development of imaging biomarkers -- Defining the biological basis and clinical question: proof of concept -- Looking for the inter-relationship: proof of mechanism -- Images acquisition: modality and protocol definition -- Images preparation -- Imaging biomarkers analysis -- Imaging biomarkers measurements -- Detecting measurement biases: the proof of principle -- Validating the imaging biomarker: the proof of efficacy and effectiveness -- The final step: Reporting imaging biomarkers results -- Sources of uncertainty: accuracy and precision of the measurements -- Pearls and pitfalls in Gold standards and biological correlation -- Imaging biobanks, big data and population-based imaging biomarkers -- A proposed Imaging Biomarkers analysis platform architecture for integration in clinics -- Use case I: Imaging biomarkers in neurodegenerative disease -- Use case II: Imaging biomarkers in tumors -- Use case III: Imaging biomarkers in thorax and heart -- Use case IV: Imaging biomarkers in musculoskeletal disorders -- Use case V: Imaging biomarkers in diffuse liver disease.