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EB
EB
Boca Raton : CRC Press, [2014]
1 online zdroj
Externí odkaz    Plný text PDF 
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ISBN 9780429102707 (e-kniha : PDF)
ISBN !9781466586376 (chyb.) (vázáno)
001478347
section 1. Fundamental conversions, computations, modeling, and algorithms -- section 2. Statistics, risk measurement, and boolean algebra -- section 3. Economics -- section 4. Engineering fundamentals -- section 5. Soil mechanics -- section 6. Biomass basic computations -- section 7. Fundamental science computations -- section 8. Environmental health and safety computations -- section 9. Math concepts : air pollution control -- section 10. Math concepts : water quality -- section 11. Math concepts : wastewater -- section 12. Math concepts : stormwater engineering.
Preface xix // Authors xxi // SECTION I Fundamental Conversions, Computations, // Modeling, and Algorithms // Chapter 1 Introduction 3 // 1.1 Setting the Stage 3 // 1.2 SI Units 3 // 1.3 Conversion Factors 4 // 1.4 Conversion Factors: Practical Examples 15 // 1.4.1 Weight. Concentration, and Flow 16 // 1.4.2 Water/Wastewater Conversion Examples 18 // 1.4.3 Temperature Conversions 24 // 1.5 Conversion Factors: Air Pollution Measurements 25 // 1.5.1 Conversion from ppm io pg/rn’ 26 // 1.5.2 Conversion Tables for Common Air Pollution Measurements 27 // 1.6 Soil Test Results Conversion Factors 29 // 1.7 Greenhouse Gas Emission Numbers to Equivalent Units 31 // 1.7.1 Electricity Reductions (Kilowatt-Hours) 31 // 1.7.2 Passenger Vehicles per Year 31 // 1.7.3 Gallons of Gasoline Consumed 32 // 1.7.4 Therms of Natural Gas 32 // 1.7.5 Barrels of Oil Consumed 32 // 1.7.6 Tanker Trucks Filled with Gasoline 33 // 1.7.7 Home Electricity Use 33 // 1.7.8 Home Energy Use 34 // 1.7.9 Number of Tree Seedlings Grown for 10 Years 34 // 1.7.10 Acres of U.S. Forests Storing Carbon for I Year 35 // 1.7.11 Acres of U.S. Forest Preserved from Conversion to Cropland..36 // 1.7.12 Propane Cylinders Used for Home Barbecues 38 // 1.7.13 Railcars of Coal Burned 38 // 1.7.14 Tons of Waste Recycled Instead of Landfilled 39 // 1.7.15 Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions for I Year 39 // 1.8 Units of Derivatives and Integrals 39 // References and Recommended Reading 39 // Chapter 2 Basic Math Operations 41 // 2.1 Introduction 41 // 2.2 Basic Math Terminology and Definitions 41 // 2.2.1 Keywords 42 // 2.3 Sequence of Operations 42 // 2.3.1 Rules for Sequence of Operations 4.3 // 2.3.2 Examples of Sequence of Operations 43 // 2.4 Percent 44 // 2.5 Significant Digits 47 // 2.6 Powers and Exponents 49 // 2.7 Averages (Arithmetic Mean) 50 // 2.8 Ratio 52 // 2.9 Dimensional Analysis 55 //
2.9.1 Basic Operation: Division of Units 55 // 2.9.2 Basic Operation: Divide by a Fraction 55 // 2.9.3 Basic Operation: Cancel or Divide Numerators and Denominators.56 // 2.10 Threshold Odor Number (TON) 59 // 2.11 Geometrical Measurements 60 // 2.11.1 Definitions 60 // 2.11.2 Relevant Geometric Equations 61 // 2.1 1.3 Geometrical Calculations 61 // 2.12 Force. Pressure, and Head Calculations 69 // 2.12.1 Force and Pressure 69 // 2.12.2 Head 70 // 2.13 Review of Advanced Algebra Key Terms/Concepts 75 // References and Recommended Reading 77 // Chapter .3 Environmental Modeling 79 // 3.1 Introduction 79 // 3.2 Basic Steps for Developing an Effective Model 79 // 3.3 What Are Models Used For? 80 // 3.4 Media Material Content 81 // 3.4.1 Material Content: Liquid Phases 82 // 3.5 Phase Equilibrium and Steady State 85 // 3.6 Math Operations and Laws of Equilibrium 86 // .3.6.1 Solving Equilibrium Problems 86 // 3.6.2 Laws of Equilibrium 87 // 3.7 Chemical Transport Systems 89 // 3.8 Final Word on Environmental Modeling 91 // References and Recommended Reading 91 // Chapter 4 Algorithms and Environmental Engineering 93 // 4.1 Introduction 93 // 4.2 Algorithms: What Are They? 93 // 4.3 Expressing Algorithms 94 // 4.4 General Algorithm Applications 94 // 4.5 Environmental Practice Algorithm Applications 96 // 4.6 Dispersion Models 96 // 4.7 Screening Tools 97 // References and Recommended Reading 98 // Chapter 5 Quadratic Equations 99 // 5.1 Quadratic Equations and Environmental Practice 99 // 5.1.1 Key Terms 99 // 5.2 Quadratic Equations: Theory and Application 100 // 5.3 Derivation of the Quadratic Equation Formula 101 // 5.4 Using the Quadratic Equation 102 // References and Recommended Reading 02 // Chapter 6 Trigonometric Ratios 103 // 6.1 Trigonometric Functions and the Environmental Practitioner 10.3 // 6.2 Trigonometric Ratios or Functions 103 // References and Recommended reading 105 //
SECTION II Statistics, Risk Measurement, and Boolean Algebra // Chapter 7 Statistics Review 109 // 7.1 Statistical Concepts 109 // 7.1.1 Probability and Statistics 110 // 7.2 Measure of Central Tendency Ill // 7.3 Symbols, Subscripts, Basic Statistical Terms, and Calculations 111 // 7.3.1 Mean 112 // 7.3.2 Median 113 // 7.3.3 Mode 11.3 // 7.3.4 Range 113 // 7.4 Distribution 115 // 7.5 Standard Deviation 117 // 7.6 Coefficient of Variation 118 // 7.7 Standard Error of the Mean 118 7.8 Covariance 119 // 7.9 Simple Correlation Coefficient 120 // 7.10 Variance of a Linear Function 121 // 7.11 Sampling Measurement Variables 123 // 7.1 l.l Simple Random Sampling 123 // 7.11.2 Stratified Random Sampling 126 // 7.12 Sampling—Discrete Variables 129 // 7.12.1 RandomSampling 129 // 7.12.2 Sample Size 130 // 7.13 Cluster Sampling for Attributes 130 // 7.13.1 Transformations 131 // 7.14 Chi-Square Tests 131 // 7.14.1 Test of Independence 131 // 7.14.2 Test of a Hypothesized Count 132 // 7.14.3 Bartlett’s Test of Homogeneity of Variance 133 // 7.15 Comparing Two Groups by the í Test 135 // 7.15.1 r Test for Unpaired Plots 135 // 7.15.2 I Test for Paired Plots 137 // 7.16 Comparison of Two or More Groups by Analysis of Variance 139 // 7.16.1 Complete Randomization 139 // 7.16.2 Multiple Comparisons 141 // 7.16.3 Randomized Block Design 144 // 7.16.4 Latin Square Design 147 // 7.16.5 Factorial Experiments 149 // 7.16.6 Split-Plot Design 154 // 7.16.7 Missing Plots 159 // 7.17 Regression 161 // 7.17.1 Simple Linear Regression 161 // 7.17.2 Multiple Regression 166 // 7.17.3 Curvilinear Regressions and Interactions 171 // 7.17.4 Group Regressions 173 // 7.17.5 Analysis of Covariance in a Randomized Block Design 176 // References and Recommended Reading 179 // Chapter 8 Computation and Measurement of Risk 181 // 8.1 Introduction 181 // 8.2 Frequency Measures 182 //
8.2.1 Ratio 182 // 8.2.2 Proportion 184 // 8.2.3 Rate 187 // 8.3 Morbidity Frequency Measures 188 // 8.3.1 Incidence Proportion or Risk 188 // 8.3.2 Incidence Rate or Person-Time Rale 190 // 8.3.3 Prevalence 19.3 // 8.4 Mortality Frequency Measures 196 // 8.4.1 Mortality Rate 196 // 8.4.2 Death-to-Case Ratio 201 // 8.4.3 Case-Fatality Rate 202 // 8.4.4 Proportionate Mortality 203 // 8.4.5 Years of Potential Life Lost 204 // 8.5 Natality (Birth) Measures 205 // 8.6 Measures of Association 206 // 8.6.1 Risk Ratio 206 // 8.6.2 Rate Ratio 208 // 8.6.3 Odds Ratio 209 // 8.7 Measures of Public Health Impact 210 // 8.7.1 Attributable Proportion 210 // 8.7.2 Vaccine Efficacy or Vaccine Effectiveness 211 // References and Recommended Reading 211 // Chapter 9 Boolean Algebra 213 // 9.1 Why Boolean Algebra? 213 // 9.1.1 Fault-Tree Analysis 214 // 9.1.2 Key Terms 216 // 9.2 Technical Overview 216 // 9.2.1 Commutative Law 216 // 9.2.2 Distributive Law 217 // 9.2.3 Identity and Inverse Variables 217 // 9.3 Boolean Synthesis 217 // References and Recommended Reading 219 // SECTION III Economics // Chapter 10 Environmental Economics 223 // IO. I Environmental Practice and Economics 223 // 10.1.1 Key Terms 224 // 10.2 Capital-Recovery Factor (Equal-Payment Series) 224 // 10.3 Uniform Series Present Worth (Value) Factor 225 // 10.4 Future Value 226 // 10.5 Annual Payment (Uniform Series Sinking Fund) 226 // 10.6 Present Value ol’Future Dollar Amount 227 // 10.7 Future Value of a Present Amount 228 // References and Recommended Reading 228 // SECTION IV Engineering Fundamentals // Chapter 11 Fundamental Engineering Concepts 231 // I l.l Introduction 231 // 11.2 Resolution of Forces 232 // 11.3 Slings 235 // 11.3.1 Rated Sling Loads 238 // 11.4 Inclined Plane 238 // 11.5 Properties of Materials 241 // 11.5.1 Friction 245 // I 1.5.2 Specific Gravity 246 //
11.5.3 Force, Mass, and Acceleration 246 // I 1.5.4 Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces 246 // 1 1.5.5 Stress and Strain 247 // 11.6 Materials and Principles of Mechanics 247 // 11.6.1 Statics 247 // 11.6.2 Dynamics 248 // 11.6.3 Hydraulics and Pneumatics—Fluid Mechanics 248 // 11.6.4 Welds 248 // 11.6.5 Moment 248 // 11.6.6 Beams and Columns 249 // 11.6.7 Bending Moment 250 // I 1.6.8 Radius of Curvature (Beam) 252 // I 1.6.9 Column Stress 252 // 11.6.10 Beam Flexure 252 // 11.6.11 Reaction Force (Beams) 253 // 11.6.12 Buckling Stress (Wood Columns) 254 // I 1.6.13 Floors 254 // 11.7 Principles of Electricity 255 // 11.7.1 Nature of Electricity 256 // 11.7.2 Simple Electrical Circuit 257 // 11.7.3 Ohm’s Law 259 // 11.7.4 Electrical Power 261 // 11.7.5 Electrical Energy (Kilowatt-Hours) 265 // 11.7.6 Series DC Circuit Characteristics 264 // 11.7.7 Parallel DC Circuits 274 // 11.7.8 Series-Parallel Circuits 284 // 11.7.9 Conductors 285 // 11.7.10 Magnetic Units 288 // 11.7.11 AC Theory 289 // I 1.7.12 Inductance 298 // References and Recommended Reading 303 // SECTION V Soil Mechanics // Chapter 12 Fundamental Soil Mechanics 307 // 12.1 Introduction 307 // 12.2 Soil: What Is It? 309 // 12.3 Soil Basics 310 // 12.3.1 Soil for Construction 310 // 12.4 Soil Characteristics 311 // 12.4.1 Soil Weight-Volume and Space-Volume Relationships 311 // 12.4.2 Specitie Gravity 313 // 12.5 Soil Particle Characteristics 314 // 12.6 Soil Stress and Strain 315 // 12.7 Soil Compressibility 316 // 12.8 Soil Compaction 316 // 12.9 Soil Failure 316 // 12.10 Soil Physics 319 // 12.11 Structural Failure 319 // References and Recommended Reading 321 // SECTION VI Biomass Basic Computations // Chapter 13 Forest-Based Biomass Basie Computations 325 // 13.1 Introduction 325 // 13.1.1 Forestry Service and Mathematics: The Interface 326 // 13.2 Forest Biomass Computations and Statistics 328 //
13.3 Sample Forest-Based Biomass Computations 328 // 13.3.1 Lower and Higher Healing Values 328 // 13.3.2 Effect of Fuel Moisture on Wood Heal Content 329 // 13.3.3 Forestry Volume Unit to Biomass Weight Considerations 330 // 13.3.4 Stand-Level Biomass Estimation 332 // 13.3.5 Biomass Equations 333 // 13.4 Timber Scaling and Log Rules 335 // 1.3.4.1 Theory of Scaling 335 // 1.3.4.2 Authorized Log Rules 336 // 13.4.3 Wood Density and Weight Ratios 339 // References and Recommended Reading 339 // SECTION VII Fundamental Science Computations // Chapter 14 Fundamental Chemistry and Hydraulics 343 // 14.1 Fundamental Chemistry 343 // 14.1.1 Density and Specific Gravity 344 // 14.1.2 Water Chemistry Fundamentals 346 // 14.2 Fundamental Hydraulics 369 // 14.2.1 Principles of Water Hydraulics 369 // 14.2.2 Basic Pumping Calculations 374 // 14.2.3 Calculating Head Loss 375 // 14.2.4 Calculating Head 375 // 14.2.5 Calculating Horsepower and Efficiency 376 // 14.2.6 Pump Efficiency and Brake Horsepower (???) 376 // References and Recommended Reading 378 // SECTION VIII Environmental Health and Safety Computations // Chapter 15 Basic Calculations for Occupational Safely and Environmental Health // Professionals 381 // 15.1 Industrial Hygiene: What Is It? 381 // 15.2 Workplace Stressors 38.3 // 15.2.1 Chemical Stressors 38.3 // 15.2.2 Physical Stressors 384 // 15.2.3 Biological Stressors 384 // 15.2.4 Ergonomic Stressors 385 // 15.3 Environmental Health and Safety Terminology 385 // 15.4 Indoor Air Quality 395 // 15.4.1 Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants 396 // 15.5 Air Pollution Fundamentals 396 // 15.5.1 Six Common Air Pollutants 397 // 15.5.2 Gases 399 // 15.5.3 Particulate Matter 404 // 15.5.4 Pollution Emission Measurement Parameters 405 // 15.5.5 Standard Corrections 405 // 15.5.6 Atmospheric Standards 406 // 15.5.7 Air Monitoring and Sampling 407 // 15.6 Ventilation 409 //
15.6.1 Definitions 410 // 15.6.2 Concept of Ventilation 412 // 15.6.3 Common Ventilation Measurements 416 // 15.6.4 Good Practices 417 // 15.6.5 Facts. Concepts, and Example Math Problems 418 // 15.7 Noise 422 // 15.7.1 Definitions 422 // 15.7.2 Occupational Noise Exposure 426 // 15.7.3 Determining Workplace Noise Levels 427 // 15.7.4 Engineering Control for Industrial Noise 429 // 15.7.5 Noise Units. Relationships, and Equations 429 // 15.8 Thermal Stress 433 // 15.8.1 Causal Factors 433 // 15.8.2 Thermal Comfort 433 // 15.8.3 Body’s Response to Heat 434 // 15.8.4 Work-Load Assessment 435 // 15.8.5 Sampling Methods 435 // 15.8.6 Heat Stress Sample Measurement and Calculation 437 // 15.8.7 Cold Hazards 437 // 15.9 Radiation 438 // 15.9.1 Definitions 438 // 15.9.2 Ionizing Radiation 440 // 15.9.3 Effective Half-Life 440 // 15.9.4 Alpha Radiation 441 // 15.9.5 Beta Radiation 441 // 15.9.6 Gamma Radiation and X-Rays 442 // 15.9.7 Radioactive Decay Equations 443 // 15.9.8 Radiation Dose 444 // References and Recommended Reading 444 // SECTION IX Math Concepts: Air Pollution Control // Chapter 16 Gas Emission Control 449 // 16.1 Introduction 449 // 16.2 Definitions 449 // 16.3 Absorption 452 // 16.3.1 Solubility 453 // 16.3.2 Equilibrium Solubility and Henry’s Law 454 // 16.3.3 Material (Mass) Balance 456 // 16.3.4 Packed Towers and Plate Towers 459 // 16.4 Adsorption 469 // 16.4.1 Adsorption Steps 470 // 16.4.2 Adsorption Forces—Physical and Chemical 470 // 16.4.3 Adsorption Equilibrium Relationships 471 // 16.4.4 Factors Affecting Adsorption 474 // 16.5 Incineration 478 // 16.5.1 Factors Affecting Incineration for Emission Control 478 // 16.5.2 Ineineration Example Calculations 481 // 16.6 Condensation 48.3 // 16.6.1 Contact Condenser Calculations 484 // 16.6.2 Surface Condenser Calculations 485 // References and Recommended Reading 489 //
Chapter 17 Particulate Emission Control 491 // 17.1 Particulate Emission Control Basics 491 // 17.1.1 Interaction of Particles with Gas 491 // 17.1.2 Particulate Collection 492 // 17.2 Particulate Size Characteristics and General Characteristics 493 // 17.2.1 Aerodynamic Diameter 493 // 17.2.2 Equivalent Diameter 493 // 17.2.3 Sedimentation Diameter 493 // 17.2.4 Cut Diameter 493 // 17.2.3 Dynamic Shape Factor 494 // 17.3 Flow Regime of Particle Motion 494 // 17.4 Particulaie Emission Control Equipment Calculations 499 // 17.4.1 Gravity Settlers 499 // 17.4.2 Cyclones 504 // 17.4.3 Electrostatic Precipitators 510 // 17.4.4 Baghouses (Fabric Filters) 516 // References and Recommended Reading 525 // Chapter 18 Wet Scrubbers for Emission Control 527 // 18.1 Introduction 527 // 18.1.1 Wet Scrubbers 527 // 18.2 Wet Scrubber Collection Mechanisms and Efficiency (Particulates) 529 // 18.2.1 Collection Efficiency 529 // 18.2.2 Impaction 529 // 18.2.3 Interception 530 // 18.2.4 Diffusion 530 // 18.2.5 Calculation of Venturi Scrubber Efficiency 531 // 18.3 Wet Scrubber Collection Mechanisms and Efficiency (Gaseous Emissions) 541 // 18.4 Assorted Venturi Scrubber Example Calculations 542 // 18.4.1 Calculations for Scrubber Design of a Venturi Scrubber 542 // 18.4.2 Spray Tower Calculations 548 // 18.4.3 Packed Tower Calculations 549 // 18.4.4 Packed Column Height and Diameter Calculations 551 // References and Recommended Reading 555 // SECTION X Math Concepts: Water Quality // Chapter 19 Running Waters 559 // 19.1 Balancing the Aquarium 559 // 19.1.1 Sources of Stream Pollution 560 // 19.2 Is Dilution the Solution? 561 // 19.2.1 Dilution Capacity of Running Waters 562 // 19.3 Discharge Measurement 562 // 19.4 Time of Travel 563 // 19.5 Dissolved Oxygen 563 // 19.5.1 Dissolved Oxygen Correction Factor 565 // 19.6 Biochemical Oxygen Demand 565 // 19.6.1 BOD Test Procedure 565 //
19.6.2 Practical BOD Calculation Procedure 566 // 19.7 Oxygen Sag (Deoxygenation) 568 // 19.8 Stream Purification: A Quantitative Analysis 569 // References and Recommended Reading 572 // Chapter 20 Slili Walers 573 // 20.1 Still Water Systems 574 // 20.2 Still Waler System Calculations 575 // 20.2.1 Slili Waler Body Morphometry Calculations 575 // 20.3 Slili Waler Surface Evaporation 578 // 20.3.1 Waler Budget Model 578 // 20.3.2 Energy Budget Model 579 // 20.3.3 Priestly-Taylor Equation 579 // 20.3.4 Penman Equation 580 // 20.3.5 DeBruin-Keijman Equation 580 // 20.3.6 Papadakis Equation 580 // References and Recommended Reading 580 // Chapter 21 Groundwater 581 // 21.1 Groundwater and Aquifers 581 // 21.1.1 Groundwater Quality 583 // 21.1.2 Groundwater under the Direct Influence of Surface Water 583 // 21.2 Aquifer Parameters 583 // 21.2.1 Aquifer Porosity 583 // 21.2.2 Specific Yield (Storage Coefficient) 584 // 21.2.3 Permeability 584 // 21.2.4 Transmissivity 584 // 21.2.5 Hydraulic Gradient and Head 584 // 21.2.6 Flow Lines and Flow Nets 585 // 21.3 Groundwater Flow 585 // 21.4 General Equations of Groundwater Flow 586 // 21.4.1 Steady Flow in a Confined Aquifer 587 // 21.4.2 Steady Flow in an Unconfined Aquifer 587 // References and Recommended Reading 587 // Chapter 22 Water Hydraulics 589 // 22.1 Introduction 589 // 22.2 Basic Concepts 589 // 22.2.1 Stevin’s Law 591 // 22.2.2 Density and Specific Gravity 591 // 22.2.3 Force and Pressure 593 // 22.2.4 Hydrostatic Pressure 594 // 22.2.5 Head 594 // 22.3 Flow and Discharge Rate: Water in Motion 596 // 22.3.1 Area and Velocity 597 // 22.3.2 Pressure and Velocity 598 // 22.4 Bernoulli’s Theorem 598 // 22.4.1 Bernoulli’s Equation 599 // 22.5 Calculating Major Head Loss 600 // 22.5.1 C Factor 601 // 22.6 Characteristics of Open-Channel Flow 601 // 22.6.1 Laminar and Turbulent Flow 601 //
22.6.2 Uniform and Varied Flow 602 // 22.6.3 Critical Flow 602 // 22.6.4 Parameters Used in Open Channel Flow 602 // 22.7 Open-Channel Flow Calculations 603 // References and Recommended Reading 604 // Chapter 23 Water Treatment Processes 605 // 23.1 Introduction 605 // 23.2 Water Source and Storage Calculations 605 // 23.2.1 Water Source Calculations 606 // 23.2.2 Vertical Turbine Pump Calculations 609 // 23.3 Water Storage 612 // 23.3.1 Water Storage Volume Calculations 613 // 23.3.2 Copper Sulfate Dosing 613 // 23.4 Coagulation. Mixing, and Flocculation 615 // 23.4.1 Coagulation 615 // 23.4.2 Mixing 615 // 23.4.3 Flocculation 616 // 23.4.4 Coagulation and Flocculation General Calculations 616 // 23.4.5 Determining Percent Strength of Solutions 619 // 23.4.6 Dry Chemical Feeder Calibration 621 // 23.4.7 Determining Chemical Usage 623 // 23.5 Sedimentation Calculations 625 // 23.5.1 Tank Volume Calculations 625 // 23.5.2 Detention Time 626 // 23.5.3 Surface Overflow Rate 627 // 23.5.4 Mean Flow Velocity 627 // 23.5.5 Weir Overflow Rate 628 // 23.5.6 Percent Settled Biosolids 629 // 23.5.7 Determining Lime Dosage (mg/L) 6.30 // 23.5.8 Determining Lime Dosage (Ib/day) 632 // 23.5.9 Determining Lime Dosage (Grams per Minute) 633 // 23.5.10 Particle Settling (Sedimentation) 63.3 // 23.5.1 1 Overflow Rate (Sedimentation) 636 // 23.6 Water Filtration Calculations 638 // 23.6.1 Flow Rate through a Filter (gpm) 638 // 23.6.2 Filtration Rate 640 // 23.6.3 Unit Filter Run Volume (UFRV) 641 // 23.6.4 Backwash Rate 642 // 23.6.5 Backwash Rise Rate 643 // 23.6.6 Volume of Backwash Water Required (gal) 644 // 23.6.7 Required Depth of Backwash Water Tank (ft) 644 // 23.6.8 Backwash Pumping Rate (gpm) 645 // 23.6.9 Percent Product Water Used for Backwashing 645 // 23.6.10 Percent Mudball Volume 646 // 23.6.1 I Filter Bed Expansion 647 // 23.6.12 Filter Loading Rate 648 //
23.6.13 Filter Medium Si/e 648 // 23.6.14 Mixed Media 649 // 23.6.15 Head Loss for Fixed Bed Flow 649 // 23.6.16 Head Loss through a Fluidized Bed 651 // 23.6.17 Horizontal Washwater Troughs 652 // 23.6.18 Filter Effieiency 653 // 23.7 Water Chlorination Caleulations 653 // 23.7.1 Chlorine Disinfection 654 // 23.7.2 Determining Chlorine Feed Rate 654 // 23.7.3 Calculating Chlorine Dose. Demand, and Residual 655 // 23.7.4 Breakpoint Chlorination Calculations 656 // 23.7.5 Calculating Dry Hypochlorite Feed Rate 658 // 23.7.6 Calculating Hypochlorite Solution Feed Rate 659 // 23.7.7 Percent Strength of Solutions 660 // 23.7.8 Calculating Percent Strength Using Dry Hypochlorite 660 // 23.7.9 Calculating Percent Strength Using Liquid Hypochlorite 661 // 23.8 Chemical Use Calculations 662 // 23.9 Chlorination Chemistry 662 // References and Recommended Reading 664 // SECTION XI Math Concepts: Wastewater // Chapter 24 Wastewater Calculations 667 // 24.1 1 ntroduction 667 // 24.2 Preliminary Treatment 667 // 24.2.1 Screening Removal Calculations 667 // 24.2.2 Screening Pit Capacity Calculations 669 // 24.2.3 Head Loss through Bar Screen Calculations 670 // 24.2.4 Grit Removal Calculations 670 // 24.2.5 Grit Channel Velocity Calculations 672 // 24.2.6 Required Settling Time Calculations 672 // 24.2.7 Required Grit Channel Length Calculations 673 // 24.2.8 Velocity of Scour Calculations 673 // 24.3 Primary Treatment 674 // 24.3.1 Process Control Calculations 674 // 24.3.2 Surface Loading Rate (Surface Settling Rate/ // Surface Overflow Rate) Calculations 675 // 24.3.3 Weir Overflow Rate (Weir Loading Rate) Calculations 675 // 24.3.4 Primary Sedimentation Basin Calculations 676 // 24.4 Biosolids Pumping Calculations 677 // 24.4.1 Percent Total Solids Calculations 677 // 24.4.2 BOD and SS Removal Calculations 677 // 24.5 Trickling Filter 678 //
24.5.1 Trickling Filter Process Calculations 679 // 24.6 Rotating Biological Contactors 682 // 24.6. i RBC Process Control Calculations 682 // 24.7 Activated Biosolids 687 // 24.7.1 Activated Biosolids Process Control Calculations 687 // 24.8 Oxidation Ditch Detention Time 701 // 24.9 Treatment Ponds 702 // 24.9.1 Treatment Pond Parameters 702 // 24.9.2 Treatment Pond Process Control Calculations 703 // 24.9.3 Aerated Ponds 704 // 24.10 Chemieal Dosage 705 // 24.10.1 Chemieal Feed Rate 706 // 24.10.2 Chlorine Dose. Demand, and Residual 707 // 24.10.3 Hypochlorite Dosage 708 // 24.10.4 Chemical Solutions 709 // 24.10.5 Mixing Solutions of Different Strength 710 // 24.10.6 Solution Mixtures and Target Percent Strength 711 // 24.10.7 Chemical Solution Feeder Setting (gpd) 712 // 24.10.8 Chemical Feed Pump: Percent Stroke Setting 713 // 24.10.9 Chemical Solution Feeder Setting (mL/min) 71.3 // 24.10.10 Chemical Feed Rate Calibration 713 // 24.10.11 Average Use Caleulations 716 // 24.11 Biosolids Production and Pumping 717 // 24.1 l.l Process Residuals 717 // 24.11.2 Primary and Secondary Solids Production Caleulations 717 // 24.1 1.3 Primary Clarifier Solids Production Calculations 717 // 24.11.4 Secondary Clarifier Solids Production Calculation 718 // 24.11.5 Percent Solids Calculations 718 // 24.11.6 Biosolids Pumping Calculations 719 // 24.12 Biosolids Thickening 722 // 24.12.1 Gravity/Dissolved Air Flotation Thickener Caleulations 722 // 24.12.2 Concentration Factor Calculations 724 // 24.12.3 Air-to-Solids Ratio Calculations 724 // 24.12.4 Recycle Flow in Percent Calculations 724 // 24.12.5 Centrifuge Thickening Caleulations 725 // 24.13 Stabilization 725 // 24.13.1 Biosolids Digestion 725 // 24.13.2 Aerobic Digestion Process Control Caleulations 726 // 24.13.3 Aerobic Tank Volume Calculations 727 // 24.13.4 Anaerobic Digestion Process Control Calculations 727 //
24.14 Biosolids Dewatering and Disposal 731 // 24.14.1 Biosolids Dewatering 731 // 24.14.2 Pressure Filtration Calculations 732 // 24.14.3 Rotary Vacuum Filter Dewatering Calculations 736 // 24.14.4 Sand Drying Bed Calculations 738 // 24.14.5 Biosolids Disposal Calculations 740 // 24.15 Wastewater Laboratory Calculations 744 // 24.15.1 Wastewater Lab 744 // 24.15.2 Composite Sampling Procedures and Calculations 745 // 24.15.3 Biochemical Oxygen Demand Caleulations 746 // 24.15.4 Mole and Molarity Calculations 748 // 24.15.5 Settleahility (Activated Biosolids Solids) Calculations 750 // 24.15.6 Sett (cable Solids Calculations 751 // 24.15.7 Biosolids Total Solids. Fixed Solids and // Volatile Solids Calculations 752 // 24.15.8 Wastewater Suspended Solids and // Volatile Suspended Solids Caleulations 753 // 24.15.9 Biosolids Volume Index and Biosolids // Density Index Calculations 754 // References and Recommended Reading 755 // SECTION XII Math Concepts: Stormwater Engineering // Chapter 25 Stormwater Calculations 759 // 25.1 Introduction 759 // 25.2 Stormwater Terms and Acronyms 759 // 25.3 Hydrologic Methods 765 // 25.3.1 Precipitation 767 // 25.4 Runoff Hydrographs 772 // 25.5 Runoff and Peak Discharge 772 // 25.6 Calculation Methods 773 // 25.6.1 Rational Method 773 // 25.6.2 Modified Rational Method 777 // 25.6.3 TR-55 Estimating Runoff Method 779 // 25.6.4 TR-55 Graphical Peak Discharge Method 787 // 25.6.5 TR-55 Tabular Hydrograph Method 788 // 25.7 General Stormwater Engineering Calculations 790 // 25.7.1 Detention. Extended Detention, and // Retention Basin Design Calculations 790 // 25.7.2 Allowable Release Rates 791 // 25.7.3 Storage Volume Requirement Estimates 791 // 25.7.4 Graphical Hydrograph Analysis—SCS Methods 792 // 25.7.5 TR-55 Storage Volume for Detention Basins (Shortcut Method) 794 //
25.7.6 Graphical Hydrograph Analysis. Modified // Rational Method. Critical Storm Duration 796 // 25.7.7 Modified Rational Method. Critical Storm Duration—Direct Solution 799 // 25.7.8 Stage-Storage Curve 806 // 25.7.9 Water Quality and Channel Erosion // Control Volume Caleulations 808 // References and Recommended Reading 814 // Index 817
(OCoLC)868795729

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