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Bibliografická citace

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EB
EB
ONLINE
Ninth edition, Global edition
Boston, [Massachusetts] : Pearson, 2015
1 online zdroj : ilustrace (některé barevné)
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ISBN 9781292077413 (e-kniha)
ISBN 9781292077406 (print)
Always Learning
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001481401
Preface 13 // The Nature of Ecology 17 // 1.1 Ecology Is the Study of the Relationship between Organisms and Their Environment 18 // 1.2 Organisms Interact with the Environment in the Context of the Ecosystem 18 // 1.3 Ecological Systems Form a Hierarchy 19 // 1.4 Ecologists Study Pattern and Process at Many Levels 20 // 1.5 Ecologists Investigate Nature Using the Scientific Method 21 // QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 1.1: Classifying Ecological Data 23 // QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 1.2: // Displaying Ecological Data: Histograms and Scatter Plots 24 // 1.6 Models Provide a Basis for Predictions 26 // 1.7 Uncertainty Is an Inherent Feature of Science 26 // 1.8 Ecology Has Strong Ties to Other Disciplines 27 // 1.9 The Individual Is the Basic Unit of Ecology 27 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: Ecology Has a Rich History 28 // Summary 30 • Study Questions 31 • Further Readings 31 // THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT // Climate 32 // 2.1 Surface Temperatures Reflect the Difference between Incoming and Outgoing Radiation 33 // 2.2 Intercepted Solar Radiation and Surface Temperatures Vary Seasonally 35 // 2.3 Geographic Difference in Surface Net Radiation Result in Global Patterns of Atmospheric Circulation 35 // 2.4 Surface Winds and Earth’s Rotation Create Ocean Currents 38 // 2.5 Temperature Influences the Moisture Content of Air 39 // 2.6 Precipitation Has a Distinctive Global Pattern 40 // 2.7 Proximity to the Coastline Influences Climate 41 // 2.8 Topography Influences Regional and Local Patterns of Climate 42 // 2.9 Irregular Variations in Climate Occur at the Regional Scale 43 // 2.10 Most Organisms Live in Microclimates 44 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: // Rising Atmospheric Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases Are Altering Earth’s Climate 46 // Summary 49 • Study Questions 50 • Further Readings 50 // The Aquatic Environment 51 //
3.1 Water Cycles between Earth and the Atmosphere 52 // 3.2 Water Has Important Physical Properties 53 // 3.3 Light Varies with Depth in Aquatic Environments 55 // 3.4 Temperature Varies with Water Depth 56 // 3.5 Water Functions as a Solvent 57 // 3.6 Oxygen Diffuses from the Atmosphere to the Surface Waters 58 // 3.7 Acidity Has a Widespread Influence on Aquatic Environments 60 // 3.8 Water Movements Shape Freshwater and Marine Environments 61 // 3.9 Tides Dominate the Marine Coastal Environment 62 // 3.10 The Transition Zone between Freshwater and Saltwater Environments Presents Unique Constraints 63 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: Rising Atmospheric Concentrations of C02 Are Impacting Ocean Acidity 64 // Summary 66 • Study Questions 67 • Further Readings 67 // The Terrestrial Environment 68 // 4.1 Life on Land Imposes Unique Constraints 69 // 4.2 Plant Cover Influences the Vertical Distribution of Light 70 // QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 4.1: Beer’s Law and the Attenuation of Light 72 // 4.3 Soil Is the Foundation upon which All Terrestrial Life Depends 74 // 4.4 The Formation of Soil Begins with Weathering 74 // 4.5 Soil Formation Involves Five Interrelated Factors 74 // 4.6 Soils Have Certain Distinguishing Physical Characteristics 75 // 4.7 The Soil Body Has Horizontal Layers or Horizons 76 // 4.8 Moisture-Holding Capacity Is an Essential Feature of Soils 77 // Ion Exchange Capacity Is Important to Soil Fertility 77 // 4.10 Basic Soil Formation Processes Produce Different Soils 78 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: Soil Erosion Is a Threat to Agricultural Sustainability 80 // Summary 83 • Study Questions 84 • Further Readings 84 // THE ORGANISM AND ITS ENVIRONMENT // Adaptation and Natural Selection 85 // 5.1 Adaptations Are a Product of Natural Selection 86 // Genes Are the Units of Inheritance 87 // 5.3 The Phenotype Is the Physical Expression of the Genotype 87 //
5.4 The Expression of Most Phenotypic Traits Is Affected by the Environment 88 // 5.5 Genetic Variation Occurs at the Level of the Population 90 // 5.6 Adaptation Is a Product of Evolution by Natural Selection 91 // 5.7 Several Processes Other than Natural Selection Can Function to Alter Patterns of Genetic Variation within Populations 94 // 5.8 Natural Selection Can Result in Genetic Differentiation 95 // QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 5.1: Hardy-Weinberg Principle 96 // FIELD STUDIES: Hopi Hoekstra 100 // 5.9 Adaptations Reflect Trade-offs and Constraints 102 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: Genetic Engineering Allows Humans to Manipulate a Species’DNA 104 // Summary 106 • Study Questions 107 • Further Readings 108 // Plant Adaptations to the Environment 109 // 6.1 Photosynthesis Is the Conversion of Carbon Dioxide into Simple Sugars 110 // 6.2 The Light a Plant Receives Affects Its Photosynthetic Activity 111 // 6.3 Photosynthesis Involves Exchanges between the Plant and Atmosphere 112 // 6.4 Water Moves from the Soil, through the Plant, to the Atmosphere 112 // 6.5 The Process of Carbon Uptake Differs for Aquatic and Terrestrial Autotrophs 115 // 6.6 Plant Temperatures Reflect Their Energy Balance with the Surrounding Environment 115 // 6.7 Constraints Imposed by the Physical Environment Have Resulted in a Wide Array of Plant Adaptations 116 // 6.8 Species of Plants Are Adapted to Different Light Environments 117 // FIELD STUDIES: Kaoru Kitajima 118 // QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 6.1: Relative Growth Rate 122 // 6.9 The Link between Water Demand and Temperature Influences Plant Adaptations 123 // 6.10 Plants Exhibit Both Acclimation and Adaptation in Response to Variations in Environmental Temperatures 128 // 6.11 Plants Exhibit Adaptations to Variations in Nutrient Availability 130 // 6.12 Plant Adaptations to the Environment Reflect a Trade-off between Growth Rate and Tolerance 132 //
ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: Plants Respond to Increasing Atmospheric CO2 133 // Summary 136 • Study Questions 137 • Further Readings 138 // Animal Adaptations to the Environment 139 // Size Imposes a Fundamental Constraint on the Evolution of Organisms 140 // 7.2 Animals Have Various Ways of Acquiring Energy and Nutrients 143 // 7.3 In Responding to Variations in the External Environment, Animals Can Be either Conformers or Regulators 144 // 7.4 Regulation of Internal Conditions Involves Homeostasis and Feedback 145 // FIELD STUDIES: Martin Wikelski 146 // 7.5 Animals Require Oxygen to Release Energy Contained in Food 148 // 7.6 Animals Maintain a Balance between the Uptake and Loss of Water 149 // 7.7 Animals Exchange Energy with Their Surrounding Environment 151 // 7.8 Animal Body Temperature Reflects Different Modes of Thermoregulation 152 // 7.9 Poikilotherms Regulate Body Temperature Primarily through Behavioral Mechanisms 153 // 7.10 Homeotherms Regulate Body Temperature through Metabolic Processes 156 // 7.11 Endothermy and Ectothermy Involve Trade-offs 157 // 7.12 Heterotherms Take on Characteristics of Ectotherms and Endotherms 158 // 7.13 Some Animals Use Unique Physiological Means for Thermal Balance 159 // 7.14 An Animal’s Habitat Reflects a Wide Variety of Adaptations to the Environment 161 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: Increasing Global Temperature Is Affecting the Body Size of Animals 162 // Summary 164 • Study Questions 165 // • Further Readings 166 // POPULATIONS // Properties of Populations // 8.1 Organisms May Be Unitary or Modular 168 // 8.2 The Distribution of a Population Defines Its Spatial Location 169 // FIELD STUDIES: Filipe Alberto 170 // 8.3 Abundance Reflects Population Density and Distribution 174 // 8.4 Determining Density Requires Sampling 176 // 8.5 Measures of Population Structure Include Age, Developmental Stage, and Siye 178 //
8.6 Sex Ratios in Populations May Shift with Age 180 // 8.7 Individuals Move within the Population 181 // 8.8 Population Distribution and Density Change in Both Time and Space 182 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: Humans Aid in the Dispersal of Many Species, Expanding Their Geographic Range 183 // Summary 186 • Study Questions 186 • Further Readings 187 // Population Growth 188 // 9.1 Population Growth Reflects the Difference between Rates of Birth and Death 189 // 9.2 Life Tables Provide a Schedule of Age-Specific Mortality and Survival 191 // QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 9.1: Life Expectancy 193 // 9.3 Different Types of Life Tables Reflect Different Approaches to Defining Cohorts and Age Structure 193 // 9.4 Life Tables Provide Data for Mortality and Survivorship Curves 194 // 9.5 Birthrate Is Age-Specific 196 // 9.6 Birthrate and Survivorship Determine Net Reproductive Rate 196 // 9.7 Age-Specific Mortality and Birthrates Can Be Used to Project Population Growth 197 // QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 9.2: Life History Diagrams and Population Projection Matrices 199 // 9.8 Stochastic Processes Can Influence Population Dynamics 201 // 9.9 A Variety of Factors Can Lead to Population Extinction 201 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: The Leading Cause of Current Population Declines and Extinctions Is Habitat Loss 202 // Summary 206 • Study Questions 207 • Further Readings 207 // Life History 208 // 10.1 The Evolution of Life Histories Involves Trade-offs 209 // 10.2 Reproduction May Be Sexual or Asexual 209 // 10.3 Sexual Reproduction Takes a Variety of Forms 210 // 10.4 Reproduction Involves Both Benefits and Costs to Individual Fitness 211 // 10.5 Age at Maturity Is Influenced by Patterns of Age-Specific Mortality 212 // 10.6 Reproductive Effort Is Governed by Trade-offs between Fecundity and Survival 215 // 10.7 There Is a Trade-off between the Number and Size of Offspring 218 //
10.8 Species Differ in the Timing of Reproduction 219 // QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 10.1: Interpreting Trade-offs 220 // 10.9 An Individual’s Life History Represents the Interaction between Genotype and the Environment 220 // 10.10 Mating Systems Describe the Pairing of Males and Females 222 // 10.11 Acquisition of a Mate Involves Sexual Selection 224 // FIELD STUDIES: Alexandra L. Basolo 226 // 10.12 Females May Choose Mates Based on Resources 228 // 10.13 Patterns of Life History Characteristics Reflect External Selective Forces 229 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: The Life History of the Human Population Reflects Technological and Cultural Changes 231 // Summary 233 • Study Questions 234 • Further Readings 234 // Intraspecific Population Regulation 235 // 11.1 The Environment Functions to Limit Population Growth 236 // QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 11.1: Defining the Carrying Capacity (K) // QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 11.2: The Logistic Model of Population Growth 238 // 11.2 Population Regulation Involves Density Dependence 238 // 11.3 Competition Results When Resources Are Limited 239 // 11.4 Intraspecific Competition Affects Growth and Development 239 // 11.5 Intraspecific Competition Can Influence Mortality Rates 241 // 11.6 Intraspecific Competition Can Reduce Reproduction 242 // 11.7 High Density Is Stressful to Individuals 244 // FIELD STUDIES: T. Scott Sillett 246 // 11.8 Dispersal Can Be Density Dependent 248 // 11.9 Social Behavior May Function to Limit Populations 248 // 11.10 Territoriality Can Function to Regulate Population Growth 249 // 11.11 Plants Preempt Space and Resources 250 // 11.12 A Form of Inverse Density Dependence Can Occur in Small Populations 251 // 11.13 Density-Independent Factors Can Influence Population Growth 253 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: The Conservation of Populations Requires an Understanding of Minimum Viable Population Size and Carrying Capacity 255 //
Summary 256 • Study Questions 257 • Further Readings 258 // SPECIES INTERACTIONS // Species Interactions, Population Dynamics, and Natural Selection 259 // 12.1 Species Interactions Can Be Classified Based on Their Reciprocal Effects 260 // 12.2 Species Interactions Influence Population Dynamics 261 // QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 12.1: Incorporating Competitive Interactions in Models of Population Growth 263 // 12.3 Species Interactions Can Function as Agents of Natural Selection 263 // 12.4 The Nature of Species Interactions Can Vary across Geographic Landscapes 267 // 12.5 Species Interactions Can Be Diffuse 268 // 12.6 Species Interactions Influence the Species’ Niche 270 // 12.7 Species Interactions Can Drive Adaptive Radiation 272 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: Urbanization Has Negatively Impacted Most Species while Favoring a // Few 273 // Summary 275 • Study Questions 276 • Further Readings 276 // Interspecific Competition // 278 // 13.1 Interspecific Competition Involves Two or More Species 279 // 13.2 The Combined Dynamics of Two Competing Populations Can Be Examined Using the Lotka-Volterra Model 279 // 6 // 13.3 There Are Four Possible Outcomes of Interspecific Competition 280 // 13.4 Laboratory Experiments Support the Lotka-Volterra Model 282 // 13.5 Studies Support the Competitive Exclusion Principle 283 // 13.6 Competition Is Influenced by Nonresource Factors 284 // 13.7 Temporal Variation in the Environment Influences Competitive Interactions 285 // 13.8 Competition Occurs for Multiple Resources 285 // 13.9 Relative Competitive Abilities Change along Environmental Gradients 287 // QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 13.1: Competition under Changing Environmental Conditions: Application of the Lotka-Volterra Model 290 // 13.10 Interspecific Competition Influences the Niche of a Species 291 // 13.11 Coexistence of Species Often Involves Partitioning Available Resources 293 //
13.12 Competition Is a Complex Interaction Involving Biotic and Abiotic Factors 296 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: Is Range Expansion of Coyote a Result of Competitive Release from Wolves? 296 // Summary 298 • Study Questions 299 • Further Readings 300 // Predation 301 // 14.1 Predation Takes a Variety of Forms 302 // 14.2 Mathematical Model Describes the Interaction of Predator and Prey Populations 302 // 14.3 Predator-Prey Interaction Results in Population Cycles 304 // 14.4 Model Suggests Mutual Population Regulation 306 // 14.5 Functional Responses Relate Prey Consumed to Prey Density 307 // QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 14.1: Type II Functional Response 309 // 14.6 Predators Respond Numerically to Changing Prey Density 310 // 14.7 Foraging Involves Decisions about the Allocation of Time and Energy 313 // QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 14.2: A Simple Model of Optimal Foraging 314 // 14.8 Risk of Predation Can Influence Foraging Behavior 314 // 14.9 Coevolution Can Occur between Predator and Prey 315 // 14.10 Animal Prey Have Evolved Defenses against Predators 316 // 14.11 Predators Have Evolved Efficient Hunting Tactics 318 // 14.12 Herbivores Prey on Autotrophs 319 // FIELD STUDIES: Rick A. Relyea 320 // 14.13 Plants Have Evolved Characteristics that Deter Herbivores 322 // 14.14 Plants, Herbivores, and Carnivores Interact 323 // 14.15 Predators Influence Prey Dynamics through Lethal and Nonlethal Effects 324 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: Sustainable Harvest of Natural Populations Requires Being a "Smart Predator" 325 // Summary 327 • Study Questions 328 • Further Readings 329 // Parasitism and Mutualism 330 // 15.1 Parasites Draw Resources from Host Organisms 331 // 15.2 Hosts Provide Diverse Habitats for Parasites 332 // 15.3 Direct Transmission Can Occur between Host Organisms 332 // 15.4 Transmission between Hosts Can Involve an Intermediate Vector 333 //
15.5 Transmission Can Involve Multiple Hosts and Stages 333 // 15.6 Hosts Respond to Parasitic Invasions 334 // 15.7 Parasites Can Affect Host Survival and Reproduction 335 // 15.8 Parasites May Regulate Host Populations 336 // 15.9 Parasitism Can Evolve into a Mutually Beneficial Relationship 337 // 15.10 Mutualisms Involve Diverse Species Interactions 338 // 15.11 Mutualisms Are Involved in the Transfer of Nutrients 339 // FIELD STUDIES: John J. Stachowicz 340 // 15.12 Some Mutualisms Are Defensive 342 // 15.13 Mutualisms Are Often Necessary for Pollination 343 // 15.14 Mutualisms Are Involved in Seed Dispersal 344 // 15.15 Mutualism Can Influence Population Dynamics 345 // QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 15.1: A Model of Mutuallstic Interactions 346 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: Land-use Changes Are Resulting in an Expansion of Infectious Diseases Impacting Human Health 347 // Summary 349 • Study Questions 350 • Further Readings 351 // COMMUNITY ECOLOGY // Community Structure 352 // 16.1 Biological Structure of Community // Defined by Species Composition 353 Species Diversity Is defined by Species Richness and Evenness 354 // 16.3 Dominance Can Be Defined by a Number of Criteria 356 // Keystone Species Influence Community Structure Disproportionately to Their Numbers 357 // Food Webs Describe Species Interactions 358 // 16.6 Species within a Community Can Be Classified into Functional Groups 363 // 16.7 Communities Have a Characteristic Physical Structure 363 // 16.8 Zonation Is Spatial Change in Community Structure 367 // 16.9 Defining Boundaries between Communities Is Often Difficult 368 // QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 16.1: Community Similarity 370 // 16.10 Two Contrasting Views of the Community 370 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: Restoration Ecology Requires an Understanding of the Processes Influencing the Structure and Dynamics of Communities 372 //
Summary 374 • Study Questions 374 • Further Readings 375 // Factors Influencing the Structure of Communities 376 // Community Structure Is an Expression of the Species’ Ecological Niche 377 Zonation Is a Result of Differences in Species’ Tolerance and Interactions along Environmental Gradients 379 // FIELD STUDIES: Sally D. Hacker 380 Species Interactions Are Often Diffuse 385 // Food Webs Illustrate Indirect Interactions 387 // Food Webs Suggest Controls of Community Structure 390 Environmental Heterogeneity Influences Community Diversity 392 Resource Availability Can Influence Plant Diversity within a Community 393 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: The Reintroduction of a Top Predator to Yellowstone National Park Led to a Complex Trophic Cascade 396 // Summary 398 • Study Questions 399 • Further Readings 400 // Community Dynamics 401 // Community Structure Changes through Time 402 // Primary Succession Occurs on Newly Exposed Substrates 404 Secondary Succession Occurs after Disturbances 405 // The Study of Succession Has a Rich History 407 // 18.5 Succession Is Associated with Autogenic Changes in Environmental Conditions 410 // 18.6 Species Diversity Changes during Succession 412 // Succession Involves Heterotrophic Species 413 // Systematic Changes in Community Structure Are a Result of Allogenic Environmental Change at a Variety of Timescales 415 // Community Structure Changes over Geologic Time 416 // 18.10 The Concept of Community Revisited 417 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: Community Dynamics in Eastern North America over the Past Two Centuries Are a Result of Changing Patterns of Land Use 421 // Summary 423 • Study Questions 424 • Further Readings 424 // Landscape Dynamics 426 // A Variety of Processes Gives Rise to Landscape Patterns 427 // 19.2 Landscape Pattern Is Defined by the Spatial Arrangement and Connectivity of Patches 429 //
19.3 Boundaries Are Transition Zones that Offer Diverse Conditions and Habitats 431 // 19.4 Patch Size and Shape Influence Community Structure 434 // 19.5 Landscape Connectivity Permits Movement between Patches 438 // FIELD STUDIES: Nick A. Haddad 440 // 19.6 The Theory of Island Biogeography Applies to Landscape Patches 442 // 19.7 Metapopulation Theory Is a Central Concept in the Study of Landscape Dynamics 444 // Quantifying Ecology 19.1: Model of Metapopulation Dynamics 445 // 19.8 Local Communities Occupying Patches on the Landscape Define the Metacommunity 447 // 19.9 The Landscape Represents a Shifting Mosaic of Changing Communities 448 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: Corridors Are Playing a Growing Role in Conservation Efforts 449 // Summary 452 • Study Questions 453 • Further Readings 454 // ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY // Ecosystem Energetics 455 // 20.1 The Laws of Thermodynamics Govern Energy Flow 456 // 20.2 Energy Fixed in the Process of Photosynthesis Is Primary Production 456 // 20.3 Climate and Nutrient Availability Are the Primary Controls on Net Primary Productivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems 457 // 20.4 Light and Nutrient Availability Are the Primary Controls on Net Primary Productivity in Aquatic Ecosystems 460 // 20.5 External Inputs of Organic Carbon Can Be Important to Aquatic Ecosystems 463 // 20.6 Energy Allocation and Plant Life-Form Influence Primary Production 464 // 20.7 Primary Production Varies with Time 465 // 20.8 Primary Productivity Limits Secondary Production 466 // 20.9 Consumers Vary in Efficiency of Production 468 // 20.10 Ecosystems Have Two Major Food Chains 469 // FIELD STUDIES: Brian Silliman 470 // 20.11 Energy Flows through Trophic Levels Can Be Quantified 472 // 20.12 Consumption Efficiency Determines the Pathway of Energy Flow through the Ecosystem 472 // 20.13 Energy Decreases in Each Successive Trophic Level 473 //
ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: Humans Appropriate a Disproportionate Amount of Earth’s Net Primary Productivity 474 // QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 20.1: Estimating Net Primary Productivity Using Satellite Data 476 // Summary 477 • Study Questions 479 // • Further Readings 479 // Decomposition and Nutrient Cycling 480 // 21.1 Most Essential Nutrients Are Recycled within the Ecosystem 481 // 21.2 Decomposition Is a Complex Process Involving a Variety of Organisms 482 // 21.3 Studying Decomposition Involves Following the Fate of Dead Organic Matter 484 // QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 21.1: Estimating the Rate of Decomposition 485 // 21.4 Several Factors Influence the Rate of Decomposition 486 // 21.5 Nutrients in Organic Matter Are Mineralized During Decomposition 489 // FIELD STUDIES: Edward (Ted) A. G. Schuur 490 // 21.6 Decomposition Proceeds as Plant Litter Is Converted into Soil Organic Matter 493 // 21.7 Plant Processes Enhance the Decomposition of Soil Organic Matter in the Rhizosphere 495 // 21.8 Decomposition Occurs in Aquatic Environments 496 // 21.9 Key Ecosystem Processes Influence the Rate of Nutrient Cycling 497 // 21.10 Nutrient Cycling Differs between Terrestrial and Open-Water Aquatic Ecosystems 498 // 21.11 Water Flow Influences Nutrient Cycling in Streams and Rivers 500 // 21.12 Land and Marine Environments Influence Nutrient Cycling in Coastal Ecosystems 501 // 21.13 Surface Ocean Currents Bring about Vertical Transport of Nutrients 502 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: Agriculture Disrupts the Process of Nutrient Cycling 503 // Summary 506 • Study Questions 507 • Further Readings 508 // H i Biogeochemical Cycles 509 // There Are Two Major Types of Biogeochemical Cycles 510 // Nutrients Enter the Ecosystem via Inputs 510 // Outputs Represent a Loss of Nutrients from the Ecosystem 511 // Biogeochemical Cycles Can Be Viewed from a Global Perspective 511 //
The Carbon Cycle Is Closely Tied to Energy Flow 511 // Carbon Cycling Varies Daily and Seasonally 513 // The Global Carbon Cycle Involves Exchanges among the Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land 514 // The Nitrogen Cycle Begins with Fixing Atmospheric Nitrogen 515 The Phosphorus Cycle Has No Atmospheric Pool 517 // 22.10 The Sulfur Cycle Is Both Sedimentary and Gaseous 518 // The Global Sulfur Cycle Is Poorly Understood 519 // The Oxygen Cycle Is Largely under Biological Control 520 // The Various Biogeochemical Cycles Are Linked 521 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: Nitrogen Deposition from Human Activities Can Result in Nitrogen Saturation 521 // Summary 523 • Study Questions 525 • Further Readings 525 // ECOLOGICAL BIOGEOGRAPHY // Terrestrial Ecosystems 526 // Terrestrial Ecosystems Reflect Adaptations of the Dominant Plant Life-Forms 528 // Tropical Forests Characterize the Equatorial Zone 530 // QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 23.1: // 10 Climate Diagrams 531 // Tropical Savannas Are Characteristic of Semiarid Regions with Seasonal Rainfall 533 // Grassland Ecosystems of the Temperate Zone Vary with Climate and Geography 535 // Deserts Represent a Diverse Group of Ecosystems 538 // 23.6 Mediterranean Climates Support Temperate Shrublands 540 Forest Ecosystems Dominate the Wetter Regions of the Temperate Zone 542 // Conifer Forests Dominate the Cool Temperate and Boreal Zones 544 // Low Precipitation and Cold Temperatures Define the Arctic Tundra 546 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: The Extraction of Resources from Forest Ecosystems Involves an Array of Management Practices 549 // Summary 552 • Study Questions 553 • Further Readings 554 // Aquatic Ecosystems 555 // 24.1 Lakes Have Many Origins 556 // Lakes Have Well-Defined Physical Characteristics 556 // 24.3 The Nature of Life Varies in the Different Zones 558 // The Character of a Lake Reflects Its Surroundig Landscape 559 //
Flowing-Water Ecosystems Vary in Structure and Types of Habitats 560 // 24.6 Life Is Highly Adapted to Flowing Water 561 // QUANTIFYING ECOLOGY 24.1: Streamflow 562 // The Flowing-Water Ecosystem Is a Continuum of Changing Environments 564 // 24.8 Rivers Flow into the Sea, Forming Estuaries 565 // Oceans Exhibit Zonation and Stratification 567 // Pelagic Communities Vary among the Vertical Zones 568 // 24.11 Benthos Is a World of Its Own 569 // Coral Reefs Are Complex Ecosystems Built by Colonies of Coral Animals 570 // 24.13 Productivity of the Oceans Is Governed by Light and Nutrients 572 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: Inputs of Nutrients to Coastal Waters Result in the Development of "Dead Zones" 572 // Summary 574 • Study Questions 576 • Further Readings 576 // 26.7 Regional Patterns of Species Diversity // Are a Function of Processes Operating at Many Scales 603 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: Regions of High Species Diversity Are Crucial to Conservation Efforts 604 Summary 606 • Study Questions 607 • Further Readings 607 // Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems 577 // 25.1 The Intertidal Zone Is the Transition between Terrestrial and Marine Environments 578 // 25.2 Rocky Shorelines Have a Distinct Pattern of Zonation 578 // 25.3 Sandy and Muddy Shores Are Harsh Environments 580 // 25.4 Tides and Salinity Dictate the Structure of Salt Marshes 581 // 25.5 Mangroves Replace Salt Marshes in Tropical Regions 582 // 25.6 Freshwater Wetlands Are a Diverse Group of Ecosystems 583 // 25.7 Hydrology Defines the Structure of Freshwater Wetlands 585 // 25.8 Freshwater Wetlands Support a Rich Diversity of Life 587 // ECOLOGICAL ISSUES & APPLICATIONS: Wetland Ecosystems Continue to Decline as a Result of Land Use 587 // Summary 589 • Study Questions 590 // • Further Readings 590 // Large-Scale Patterns of Biological Diversity 591 //
26.1 Earth’s Biological Diversity Has Changed through Geologic Time 592 // 26.2 Past Extinctions Have Been Clustered in Time 593 // 26.3 Regional and Global Patterns of Species Diversity Vary Geographically 594 // 26.4 Various Hypotheses Have Been proposed to Explain Latitudinal Gradients of Diversity 596 // 26.5 Species Richness Is Related to Available Environmental Energy 598 // 26.6 Large-scale Patterns of Species Richness Are Related to Ecosystem Productivity 600 // The Ecology of Climate Change 608 // 27.1 Earth’s Climate Has Warmed over the Past Century 609 // 27.2 Climate Change Has a Direct Influence on the Physiology and Development of Organisms 611 // 27.3 Recent Climate Warming Has Altered the Phenology of Plant and Animal Species 614 // 27.4 Changes in Climate Have Shifted the Geographic Distribution of Species 615 // 27.5 Recent Climate Change Has Altered Species Interactions 618 // 27.6 Community Structure and Regional Patterns of Diversity Have Responded to Recent Climate Change 621 // 27.7 Climate Change Has Impacted Ecosystem Processes 623 // 27.8 Continued Increases in Atmospheric Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases Is Predicted to Cause Future Climate Change 624 // 27.9 A Variety of Approaches Are Being Used to Predict the Response of Ecological Systems to Future Climate Change 626 // FIELD STUDIES: Erika Zavaleta 628 // 27.10 Predicting Future Climate Change Requires an Understanding of the Interactions between the Biosphere and the Other Components of the Earth’s System 633 // Summary 635 • Study Questions 636 // • Further Readings 637 // References 639 Glossary 657 Credits 673 Index 683
(MiAaPQ)EBC5174457
(Au-PeEL)EBL5174457
(CaPaEBR)ebr11482912
(CaONFJC)MIL815374
(OCoLC)1015884067

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