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Bibliografická citace

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EB
EB
ONLINE
[Praha] : Karolinum, 2021
1 online zdroj (176 stran)
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ISBN 978-80-246-4951-1 (online ; pdf)
ISBN 978-80-246-4863-7 (print)
Public Health and Preventive Medicine je učebnicí pro studenty všeobecného lékařství a zubního lékařství, může však sloužit i zdravotníkům či odborné nelékařské veřejnosti. Jejím cílem je poskytnout informace o preventivních aktivitách, které mohou prodloužit délku života a zlepšit kvalitu života jednotlivců a populací. Kniha poskytuje přehled hlavních témat ochrany a podpory zdraví a interakcí mezi zdravím a životním prostředím s důrazem na ovlivnitelné faktory životního stylu v prevenci chronických neinfekčních onemocnění..
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1. PUBLIC HEALTH AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE 11 // 1.1 Health 12 // 1.1.1 Definition 12 // 1.1.2 Adaptation 12 // 13.3 Dimensions 14 // 13.4 Determinants 15 // 1.2 Assessment of population health status 16 // 1.2.1 Data resources for the assessment of population health status 16 // 1.3 Health preventive programs 17 // 2. DIET AND POPULATION 21 // 2.1 Dietary assessment, nutrition monitoring 22 // 2.1.1 National food supply 22 // 2.1.2 Food-frequency questionnaire 23 // 2.1.3 Dietary recall/records analysis 23 // 2.1.4 Household surveys 24 // 2.1.5 Chemical analysis of double portion 25 // 2.2 Factors influencing food consumption 25 // 2.3 Dietary recommendations 25 // 2.3.1 General dietary recommendations 25 // 23.2 Food-based dietary guidelines 26 // 233 Dietary reference intake 28 // 2.3.4 Alternative diets 30 // 2.3.4.1 Vegetarian diet 31 // 2.3.4.2 Macrobiotic diet 32 // 2.3.4.3 Alternative ecological bioproducts/organic products 33 // 3. MAJOR DIETARY CONSTITUENTS 34 // 3.1 Energy 34 // 3.1.1 Energy needs 34 // 3.1.2 Insufficient energy intake: Marasmus (protein-energy malnutrition) 37 // 3.1.3 Excessive energy intake: Obesity 37 // 3.2 Proteins 37 // 3.2.1 Insufficient intake 39 // 3.2.2 Excessive intake 39 // 33 Lipids 39 // 3.4 Carbohydrates 42 // 3.5 Dietary fiber 42 // 3.5.1 Components of fiber and their physiological parameters 43 // 3.5.2 Impact of dietary fiber on the gastrointestinal tract 45 // 3.53 Recommended dose of fiber 45 // 3.5.4 Diseases associated with lack of dietary fiber 46 // 3.6 Probiotics in diet 46 // 3.7 Dietary supplements 48 // 3.8 The most widespread micronutrients deficiencies 49 // 3.8.1 Vitamin A deficiency 49 // 3.8.2 Iron deficiency 50 // 3.8.3 Iodine deficiency 51 // 4. NUTRITIONAL-STATUS ASSESSMENT 52 // 4.1 Medical history 52 // 4.2 Somatometric measurements 53 // 4.3 Clinical examination 55 // 4.4 Laboratory tests 57 //
4.5 Food-intake information 59 // 5. NUTRITIONAL NEEDS DURING THE LIFE CYCLE 61 // 5.1 Nutrition in infancy 61 // 5.1.1 Nutrition in the first 6 months, breast-feeding 61 // 5.1.2 Nutritive features of breast milk 62 // 5.1.3 Basic principles of nutrition from the 7th to 12th month 66 // 5.2 Nutrition of toddlers 68 // 5.3 Nutrition of preschool and younger school children 69 // 5.4 Nutrition of older school children and adolescents 70 // 5.5 Nutrition of elderly people 71 // 5.5.1 Assessment of nutritional status 71 // 5.5.2 Malnutrition 73 // 5.53 Dietary recommendations 74 // 6. FOOD AND NUTRITION POLICY 76 // 6.1 Food supply in the context of sustainable development 76 // 6.2 Food safety 77 // 6.2.1 Alimentary infections 78 // 6.2.1.1 General symptoms of alimentary infections 78 // 6.2.1.2 Pathogenetic mechanisms of alimentary infections 78 // 6.2.13 The source 79 // 6.2.1.4 Transmission 79 // 6.2.1.5 Latency period 79 // 6.2.1.6 Diagnosis 79 // 6.2.1.7 An overview of bacterial alimentary diseases 79 // 6.2.1.8 An overview of viral alimentary diseases 79 // 6.2.1.9 An overview of parasitic alimentary diseases 80 // 6.2.1.10 Special alimentary diseases and infections of the gastrointestinal tract 80 // 6.2.1.11 Alimentary infections from the hygienic perspective 80 // 6.2.1.12 Transmission of alimentary diseases and epidemiological interventions 80 // 6.2.1.13 Anti-epidemic activities against alimentary infections 85 // 6.2.2 Chemical safety and xenobiotics in foods 88 // 6.2.2.1 Additives in foods 88 // 6.2.2.2 Contaminants in foods 89 // 6.2.3 Quality requirements for drinking water 89 // 6.23.1 Basic hazards from drinking water 91 // 63 Healthy nutrition for all 91 // 7. SMOKING // 7.1 Introduction and epidemiology // 7.2 Substances in tobacco mixture and tobacco smoke // 73 Physiological mechanism of tobacco addiction //
7.4 Classification and objectivization of tobacco addition // 7.5 Health consequences of buming-tobacco use // 7.5.1 Cardiovascular diseases - mechanisms and effects // 7.5.2 Oncological diseases - mechanisms and effects // 7.6 Therapy and brief intervention of patients (method 5 As) // 7.7 Public health actions // 8. ALCOHOL OVERCONSUMPTION // 9. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY // 9.1 Global and European strategies // 9.2 Physical activity in primary prevention // 9.3 Health-oriented physical fitness and physical activity // 9.3.1 Physical-activity recommendations // 9.3.2 The assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness // 9.3.3 Neuromuscular fitness and postural-pattern assessment // 10. PREVENTION OF NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES // 10.1 Obesity // 10.1.1 Epidemiology of obesity // 10.1.2 Obesity prevention at population level // 10.13 Obesity prevention - an individual approach // 10.1.4 Diet therapy in the prevention and management of adult obesity // 10.2 Cardiovascular diseases // 10.2.1 Risk factors // 10.2.2 Prevention // 10.2.2.1 Lifestyle intervention focused on physical activity // 10.2.2.2 Lifestyle intervention focused on diet // 10.2.2.3 Mechanisms of cardioprotective effects of phytochemical substances // 10.3 Oncological diseases and their primary prevention // 10.3.1 Primary prevention of malignancies from the community point of view // 10.3.2 Secondary prevention of malignancies from the community point of view // 10.3.3 Primary and secondary prevention of tumors from the individual point of view // 11. CHILD AND ADOLESCENT HEALTH // 11.1 Introduction // 11.2 Child growth and development // 11.1.1 Assessment of selected anthropometric data // 11.2.1.1 Construction and use of growth charts // 11.2.1.2 Assessment of body length (height) and growth rate // 12.2.1.3 Determinants of growth // 11.2.1.4 Growth disorders // 11.2.1.5 Nutritional-status assessment in children //
11.2.2 Developmental characteristics of children and adolescents // 11.2.2.1 Periodization of childhood and adolescence // 11.2.2.2 Psychomotor and psychosocial development // 113 Health risks of children, the level of stress // 11.3.1 Fulfilling the basic needs of a child // 11.3.2 Signs of disrespect for the basic needs of a child // 113.2.1 Health risks in kindergartens // 11.3.2.2 School and inappropriate school load 146 // 11.1 Prevention of children’s injuries and violence against children 148 // 11.1.1 Prevention of children’s injuries 148 // 11.1.2 Prevention of violence against children 149 // 11.1.2.1 Risk factors. Forms of violence: definition, consequences 150 // 12. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 154 // 12.1 Water management 154 // 12.1.1 Protection of drinking-water sources 155 // 12.2 Noise and its reduction 155 // 123 Air pollution 157 // 12.4 Public-health view on waste 159 // 12.5 Maintaining a safe building environment 160 // 12.5.1 Indoor climatic conditions 160 // 12.5.2 Indoor air quality 161 // 12.5.3 Lighting 162 // 13. OXIDATIVE STRESS 164 // 13.1 Free radicals 164 // 13.2 Formation of free radicals 165 // 13.2.1 Endogenous causes 165 // 13.2.2 Exogenous causes 165 // 133 Antioxidant-defense system 166 // 13.3.1 Antioxidant enzymes 166 // 13.3.2 Non-enzymatic antioxidant proteins 167 // 13.3.3 Low-molecular anti oxidant substrates 167 // 13.4 Total anti oxidant capacity 168 // 13.5 Balance between free radicals and antioxidants 168 // 13.6 Beneficial effects of free radicals 168 // 13.7 Deleterious effects of free radicals on biomolecules 169 // 13.8 Quantification of oxidative stress 169 // 13.9 Oxidative-stress-related diseases 170 // References 171

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