Bogdanove 6.1 Introduction 6.2 TAL effectors are delivered into and may dimerize in the host cell 6.3 TAL effectors function in the plant cell nucleus 6.4 AvrBs4 is recognized in the plant cell cytoplasm 6.5 TAL effectors activate host gene expression 6.6 The central repeat region of TAL effectors determines DNA binding specificity 6.7 TAL effectors wrap around DNA in a right-handed superhelix 6.8 TAL effector targets include different susceptibility and candidate susceptibility genes 6.9 The MtN3 gene family is targeted by multiple TAL effectors 6.10 Promoter polymorphisms prevent S gene activation to provide disease resistance 6.11 The nature of the rice bacterial blight resistance gene xa5 suggests TAL effector interaction with plant transcriptional machinery 6.12 Executor R genes exploit TAL effector activity for resistance 6.13 The diversity of TAL effectors in Xanthomonas populations is largely unexplored 6.14 TAL effectors are useful tools for DNA targeting 6.15 Summary 7-
Effectors of fungi and oomycetes: their virulence and avirulence functions, and translocation from pathogen to host cells Brett M. Tyler and Thierry Rouxel 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Identification of fungal and oomycete effectors 7.3 Defensive effectors: effectors that interfere with plant immunity 7.4 Offensive effectors: effectors that debilitate plant tissue 7.5 Entry of intracellular effectors 7.6 Genome location and consequences on adaptation/dispensability 7.7 Concluding remarks 8 Plant-virus interaction: defense and counter-defense Amy Wahba Foreman, Gail J.-
Takken 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Building blocks of NB-LRRs; classification and structural features of subdomains 2.3 Putting the parts together: combining the domains to build a signalling competent NB-LRR protein 2.4 Stabilization and accumulation of NB-LRR proteins: their maturation and stabilisation 2.5 Pathogen recognition,-
tomato 9.6 ETI is involved in non-host resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pathovars 9.7 ETI signaling pathways in the Solanaceae 9.8 Conclusions and future prospects 10 The Cladosporium fulvum-tomato pathosystem: fungal infection strategy and plant responses Bilal Okmen and Pierre J.G.M. de Wit 10.1 Introduction 10.2 History of the interaction between Cladosporium fulvum and tomato 10.3 Compatible and incompatible interactions 10.4 Tomato Cf resistance proteins 10.5 Cf-mediated downstream signaling 10.6 Effectors in other fungi with similar infection strategies 10.7 Conclusion 11 The cucumber mosaic virus-Arabidopsis interaction: Interplay of virulence strategies and plant responses Jack H. Westwood and John P.-
5 Effectors of bacterial pathogens: modes of action and plant targets Feng Feng and Jian-Min Zhou 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Overview of plant innate immunity 5.3 Overview of type III effectors 5.4 Host targets and biochemical functions 5.5 Concluding remarks 6 The roles of transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors in virulence and avirulence of Xanthomonas Aaron W. Hummel and Adam J.-
Carr 11.1 Introduction 11.2 The biology of CMV 11.3 Host resistance responses to virus infection 11.4 Targeting of host factors by the virus 11.5 The phenomenon of cross-protection 11.6 The functions of salicylic acid in antiviral defense 11.7 Metabolic responses to CMV infection 11.8 Vector-mediated transmission 11.9 Future perspectives 12 Future prospects for genetically engineering disease resistance plants Yan-Jun Chen, Michael F. Lyngkjr and David B. Collinge 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Targets for second generation transgenic strategies for resistance 12.3 Hormones 12.4 Defence modulation 12.5 Transcription factors 12.6 Promoters for transgenic disease resistance 12.7 Implementation of transgenic resistance in the field 12.8 Why chose a transgenic approach? 12.9 Concluding remarks.
Pruss and Vicki Vance 8.1 Introduction 8.2 RNA silencing as an antiviral defense pathway - the beginning of the story 8.3 Small regulatory RNA biogenesis and function 8.4 The silencing mafia - the protein families 8.5 The defense: anti-viral RNA silencing pathways 8.6 The counter-defense: viral suppressors of silencing and their targets 8.7 Viral suppressors of silencing and endogenous small regulatory RNA pathways 9 Molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between tomato and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Andre C. Velasquez and Gregory B. Martin 9.1 Introduction 9.2 PAMP-triggered immunity in the Solanaceae 9.3 Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato virulence mechanisms 9.4 Effector-triggered immunity in the Solanaceae 9.5 Races of Pseudomonas syringae pv.-
how are effectors detected by NB-LRRs? 2.6 When the pathogen attacks: perception and signalling by NB-LRR proteins 2.7 Concluding remarks 3 Signal transduction pathways activated by R proteins Gitta Coaker and Douglas Baker 3.1 Introduction 3.2 R protein stability 3.3 Genetic separation of CC and TIR-NB-LRR signaling 3.4 NB-LRRs exhibit modular structure and function 3.5 Subcellular localization of NB-LRRs 3.6 NB-LRRs can function in pairs 3.7 Common immune signaling events downstream of R protein activation 3.8 Conclusions 4 The roles of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in plant immunity Pradeep Kachroo and Aardra Kachroo 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Biosynthesis of SA 4.3 Derivatives of SA 4.4 SA and systemic acquired resistance 4.5 SA signaling pathway 4.6 Jasmonates mediate plant immunity 4.7 JA biosynthetic mutants are altered in microbial defense 4.8 A receptor protein complex perceives JA 4.9 Transcription factors regulate JA-derived signaling 4.10 JA regulates defense gene expression-
Machine generated contents note: Contents List of contributors Preface 1 The rice Xa21 immune receptor recognizes a novel bacterial quorum sensing factor Pamela C. Ronald 1.1 Abstract 1.2 Introduction 1.3 Plants and animal immune systems 1.4 A plethora of immune receptors recognize conserved microbial signatures 1.5 The Ax21 conserved molecular signature: a bacterial signaling molecule 1.6 The non-RD receptor kinase Xa21 1.7 XA21-mediated signaling components 1.8 Regulation in the endoplasmic reticulum: quality control of XA21 1.9 Systems biology of the innate immune response 2 Molecular basis of effector recognition by plant NB-LRR proteins Lisong Ma, Harrold A. van den Burg, Ben J.C. Cornelissen and Frank L.W.-
"Molecular Plant Immunity provides an integrated look at both well-established and emerging concepts in plant disease resistance providing the most current information on this important vitally important topic within plant biology. Understanding the molecular basis of the plant immune system has implications on the development of new varieties of sustainable crops, understanding the challenges plant life will face in changing environments, as well as providing a window into immune function that could have translational appeal to human medicine.Molecular Plant Immunity opens with chapters reviewing how the first line of plant immune response is activated followed by chapters looking at the molecular mechanisms that allow fungi, bacteria, and oomycetes to circumvent those defenses. Plant resistance proteins, which provide the second line of plant immune defense, are then covered followed by chapters on the role of hormones in immunity and the mechanisms that modulate specific interaction between plants and viruses. The final chapters look at model plant-pathogen systems to review interaction between plants and fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens. Written by a leading team of international experts, Molecular Plant Immunity will provide a needed resource to diverse research community investigated plant immunity"-- Provided by publisher..
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