Print version: Neil, Kent A Concise History of the Russian Orthodox Church La Vergne : Academica Press,c2021 ISBN 9781680539059
A Concise History ofthe Russian Orthodox Church -- Neil Kent -- A Concise History ofthe Russian Orthodox Church -- Neil Kent -- Academica PressWashington ~ London -- Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data -- Names: Kent, Neil (author) -- Title: A concise history of the russian orthodox church | Neil Kent -- Description: Washington : Academica Press, 2022. | Includes references. -- Identifiers: LCCN 2020056523 | ISBN 9781680539059 (hardcover) | 9781680539066 (paperback) | 9781680539073 (e-book) -- Copyright 2022 Neil Kent -- Chapter 1Introduction 1 -- Establishment of Christianity in the Roman Empire 2 -- The Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom or Hagia Sophia 3 -- Early Church Fathers 4 -- Conflicts within the Early Church 4 -- Rise of Monasticism 6 -- Chapter 2The Early Kievan Church 11 -- Establishment of the Metropolitan See of Kiev 11 -- Saints Boris and Gleb 11 -- Saint Hilarion 12 -- The Cathedral of Saint Sophia in Kiev 13 -- The Great Schism 13 -- Kiev’s Monastery of the Caves 14 -- Threats from West and East 15 -- Chapter 3The Russian Church During and After the Tatars 17 -- The Mongol Conquest 17 -- Saint Alexis the Wonderworker of All Russia 18 -- Saint Sergei of Radonezh 18 -- Theophanes the Greek 19 -- Andrei Rublev 19 -- Dionisii 20 -- Failure of the Council of Florence to Reunite Christendom 20 -- Chapter 4Conflict and Reform 23 -- Controversy over Monastic Wealth 23 -- The Judaizing Heresy 24 -- Saint Nil Sorsky 26 -- Saint Maximus the Greek 27 -- Tsar Ivan the Terrible and the Martyrdom of the Innocents 28 -- The Solovetsky Monastery 28 -- Establishment of the Patriarchate of Moscow 29 -- The Councils of Brest 30 -- The Time of Troubles and the Tribulations of the Church 31 -- The Reforms of Patriarch Nikon 32 -- Chapter 5The Beginning of the "Babylonian Captivity" 35 -- Peter the Great and Russian Orthodoxy 35.
All Christian Churches trace their origins to the life of Jesus Christ, and His Death and Resurrection, over two thousand years ago. For adherents of Christianity, these are the central events in the history and salvation of mankind. -- Yet over the millennia, Christians have separated themselves from each other, not only by virtue of the political, cultural, and social diversities that distinguish them, but with differences of dogma, doctrine, and religious customs that developed over this long period. Already in the early centuries of the first millennium AD, the Church in the Eastern regions of the Roman Empire had developed characteristics that defines it to this today, in distinction to the Latin tradition that characteriz -- In the East, by contrast, Orthodoxy, has long since been the principal Christian faith, despite threats to its existence from Arab, Mongol, and Turkish conquests -- attacks from Poland-Lithuania, Sweden, and Germany -- and rule by militant atheistic communism. Now, in contrast to the atrophying practice of Christianity in the West, Orthodox Christianity in the East, especially in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, Bulgaria, Georgia, and parts of the former Yugoslavia, has experienced an ext -- Throughout the first three centuries of Christianity, adherents of the faith suffered persecutions at the hands of Roman emperors and within the communities in which they lived. It was only in the early fourth century that their situation changed dramatically. In 312 AD, Emperor Constantine ceased persecuting Christianity and soon established it as the state religion of the Roman Empire, supplanting various forms of paganism that had characterized the empire and the republic before it.
The Cathedral of Saints. Peter and Paul, St. Petersburg 35 -- The Alexander Nevsky Monastery 36 -- The Petrine Reforms and the Abolition of the Patriarchate 36 -- Ecclesiastical Reaction andthe Revival of Monastic Life to marry Peter III 39 -- Establishment and Development of Religious Academies 40 -- Saint Tikhon of Zadonsk 41 -- Missionary Work of the Clergy 41 -- Spiritual Revival, the Philocalia, and Saint Seraphim of Sarov 42 -- Chapter 6Spiritual Revival and the Threats of Secular Liberalism 57 -- Metropolitan Philaret of Moscow 57 -- Our Lady of Kazan Cathedral 58 -- Saint Isaac’s Cathedral 59 -- Petr Chaadaev 59 -- Alexander Pushkin 60 -- Aleksei Komiakov 61 -- Fyodor Dostoyevsky and the Phenomenonof the Elder in Late Nineteenth-Century Russia 62 -- Nikolai Gogol 63 -- Saint Ignatius Bryanchaninov 63 -- Apostate Seminarians 65 -- Missionary Work to the Borders of the Empire and Beyond 66 -- Chapter 7Church Reform and Reestablishment of the Patriarchate 71 -- Vladimir Soloviev 71 -- Saint John of Kronstadt 72 -- Nikolai Leskov 74 -- Anton Chekhov 75 -- Orthodox Composers 76 -- The First World War 77 -- Hilarion 78 -- Nikolai Berdiaev 78 -- Saint Maksim Sandovich 79 -- Revolution and the Convocation of the Council of 1917 80 -- Independence of the Georgian Orthodox Church 81 -- Saint Seraphin of Vyritsa 81 -- Chapter 8Soviet Persecution 83 -- The Persecution of the Church Commences 83 -- Patriarch Tikhon’s Attempts to Preserve Church Integrity 84 -- The Second World War and Church Revival 89 -- Abrogation of the Union of Brest 90 -- Khrushchev and Renewed Persecution of the Church 90 -- Nikodim, Metropolitan of Leningrad 91 -- Father Alexander Men 91 -- Chapter 9The Diaspora of the Russian Orthodox Church 93 -- Sergei Bulgakov 96 -- The Orthodox Theological Institute of Paris 97 -- Saint John the Baptist Monastery, Essex 98.
Yet already by this time, factions were undermining the unity of the Church. In 325 AD, Constantine convoked an episcopal council of some 318 bishops, the heirs to the Apostles, who oversaw the rites and beliefs of the Church, as well as the priests who performed its sacraments. This was the Council of Nicea, then a Greek-speaking city in northwestern Anatolia, in what is today Turkey. The Nicene Creed, which emerged from the council, has ever since been the central expression of belief of virtu -- Nicea was one of a number of early Church councils informing the dogmas, doctrines, and canons that still serve as the foundation blocks of all Christian churches to this day. Along with later ones, it also helped to define, often in open conflict, the relationship between Church and State. -- According to the synoptic gospels of the Bible, Jesus had said: "Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and unto God the things that are God’s." In line with this, and as formulated by the Emperor Constantine, the relationship was perceived as one of harmony and complementarity. Constantine spoke of a "symphony" between the two, which, although it later occasionally broke down, would be reconfirmed in the ninth century, in the reign of Emperor Basil I (867-886 AD). In the reality of a -- From the fourth century AD until the conquest of the Byzantine Empire by the Turks, the Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom or Hagia Sophia, in Greek, was and in some respects, still is the greatest of all Orthodox Churches, the Mother Church of the Byzantine Empire. Moreover, it has for centuries been the symbol for the faithful dreaming about an Orthodox Revival in Constantinople, today’s Istanbul, in what is now an overwhelmingly Muslim Turkey.
Metropolitan Anthony of Sourozh 99 -- The Russian Orthodox Monasteryof Saint Panteleimon, Mount Athos 99 -- Russian Monastery of Jerusalem 100 -- Chapter 10The Church Revives 101 -- Architectural and Artistic Revival of the Church’s Fabric 102 -- Councils of Bishops in 2000 and 2004 102 -- Restitution of Church Property 103 -- The Hierarchy of the Church Today 104 -- Metropolitan Kallistos 105 -- Metropolitan John 106 -- Jean-Claude Larchet 106 -- Father John Behr 106 -- Patriarch Kirill 107 -- Metropolitan Hilarion (Alfeev) 108 -- Metropolitan Tikhon (Shevkunov) 108 -- President Vladimir Putin 109 -- The Patriarchal Military Cathedral of the Resurrection 111 -- Patriarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church 111 -- Index 113 -- Illustrations - A Concise History of the Russian Orthodox Church -- The Baptism of Saint Prince Vladimir, Viktor Vasnetsov (1890) -- Cathedral of the Dormition in the Monastery of the Caves, Kiev -- Saint Sergei of Radonezh by Sergei Kirillov (1993) -- Transfiguration, icon by Theophanes the Greek (15th century) -- Virgin of Vladimir, icon by Andrei Rublev (1400) -- Christ the Redeemer by Andrei Rublev -- Christ’s Harrowing of Hell by Dionisii (c. 1495-96) -- Saint Philip II, Metropolitan of Moscow, icon -- Solovetsky Monastery -- Patriarch Philaret -- New Jerusalem Monastery -- Alexander Nevsky Monastery, St. Petersburg -- Palace of the Most Holy Synod, St. Petersburg -- Saint Tikhon of Zadonsk -- Saint Philaret of Moscow. -- Saint Nicholas of Japan -- Saint John of Kronstadt -- Davidov Pustyn Monastery of the Ascension, Novyy Byt -- Metropolitan Tikhon of Moscow -- Metropolitan Anthony of Sourozh -- Chapter 1 Introduction -- Establishment of Christianity in the Roman Empire -- The Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom or Hagia Sophia -- Early Church Fathers -- Conflicts within the Early Church -- Rise of Monasticism.
This most famous and venerable of all Orthodox churches was built by order of the Emperor Justinian I ("the Lawgiver") in 532-537. It is a vast and imposing stone edifice, with joints of brick and mortar, including elements of sand and ceramics. Its central feature is its nave, crowned by a vaulted central dome, in turn surrounded by smaller ancillary domes, richly decorated with icons. It served as the seat of eastern Christianity from the time of its completion until the fall of the Byzantine.